Echinochloa pyramidalis*

Echinochloa pyramidalis* (Lam.) Hitchcock
& Chase. Contr. U.S. Natl Herb. 18: 345 (1917).

Classification. (GPWG 2001) : Subfamily Panicoideae. Paniceae.

Basionym and/or
Replacement Name:
Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 171 (1791).

Type of Basionym or
Protologue Information
: HT: D. Roussillon s.n., 1789, Senegal: E. Senegal
(P-LAM; IT: US-80942 (fragm. ex P-LAM)).

Key references
(books and floras):
[1952] C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1
Gramineae (254), [2002] D.Sharp & B.K.Simon, AusGrass, Grasses of
, [2006] J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South
(449), [2008] S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Walley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses
of New South Wales

[2006] J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia  (449, Fig. 381), [2008] S.W.L.Jacobs,
R.D.B.Whalley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales, 4th edn

Perennial. Rhizomes present, elongated. Stolons absent. Culms erect, stature
reed-like, 100–400 cm tall, 5–8 -noded. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface or
hairy. Ligule a fringe of hairs, 1–4 mm long. Leaf-blades 1.8–70 cm long, 2–25
mm wide. Leaf-blade surface smooth.

Inflorescence compound, a panicle of racemes. Racemes ascending, 3–20 cm long.
Central inflorescence axis 8–40 cm long.

Spikelets sessile. Fertile spikelets 2-flowered, the lower floret barren
(rarely male), the upper fertile, comprising 1 basal sterile florets, comprising
1 fertile floret(s), without rachilla extension, lanceolate or elliptic or
ovate, dorsally compressed, 2.5–4 mm long. Rhachilla internodes brief up to
lowest fertile floret.

Glumes dissimilar, thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate, membranous,
without keels, 3–5 -nerved. Lower glume surface glabrous or indumented. Lower
glume apex muticous or mucronate. Upper glume ovate, 2.9–3.9 mm long,
membranous, without keels, 5–7 -nerved. Upper glume surface glabrous or
indumented. Upper glume apex muticous or mucronate. Florets. Basal
sterile florets 1, male, with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret 100 % of
length of spikelet, membranous, 5–7 -nerved, muticous or awned (rarely).

Fertile lemma 2–3.7 mm
long, without keel, 5 -nerved. Lemma apex mucronate. Anthers 3.

: Africa, Temperate Asia, Australasia, North America, and South

: Western Australia, South Australia, Queensland, New South

Western Australia:
Drummond, Warren.

Diagnostic features include the ciliate ligule, awnless spikelets, and its
perennial habit with well-developed rhizomes.

Introduced. A tropical
African species. In tropical and subtropical rain forests and dry sclerophyll
forests. Known from only a few collections in Australia. Flowers Mar.-Oct.

AVH 2011 


Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith