Jarava* Prodr. Fl. Peruv. Chil. 2 (1794).

Derivation:. Named for Juan de Jarava, Spanish physician and naturalist.

Taxonomic revisions, nomenclatural references:. S.W.L.Jacobs and J.Everett, Telopea 7: 301–302 (1997).

Key references (keys and floras):. D.Sharp and B.K.Simon, AusGrass (2002); J.P.Jessop, Grasses of South Australia 105–106 (2006); A.Wilson (ed.), Flora of Australia 44A: Poaceae 2: 62 (2009).

W.D.Clayton & S.A.Renvoize, Genera Graminum (1986), genus (syn. of Stipa).

Naturalised. About 10 species (most not yet transferred from Stipa or Achnatherum), from South and Central America, including Andes; ranging from Mexico to Argentina and Chile. 1 species in Australia, SA.

Habit. Perennial, tufted. Leaf blades narrow. Ligule an unfringed membrane.

Inflorescence. Inflorescence paniculate.

Spikelets. Spikelets laterally compressed or subterete, pedicelled (the pedicels flattened, scabrous in J. plumosa); with rachilla terminating in a floret. Fertile spikelets ovate, laterally compressed or subterete, disarticulating above glumes.

Glumes. Glumes unequal to more or less equal, shorter than spikelet or about equal to spikelet, shorter than adjacent lemmas (usually) or long relative to adjacent lemmas (rarely, about equal to slightly longer than the lemma), hairless, glabrous, pointed, awnless, keeled or non-keeled, similar (lanceolate). Lower glume 0.7–0.9 times length of upper glume, 1 nerved. Upper glume 1 nerved.

Florets. Fertile florets 1. Lemmas narrowly fusiform, involute (?), decidedly firmer than glumes, smooth, becoming indurated to not becoming indurated (less firm than in most Stipeae), brown in fruit (light brown to pinkish in J. plumosa), awned, without a germination flap, not keeled (terete). Awns 1, apical (?), geniculate (twice bent), hairless (scabrous, sometimes only minutely so), much longer than body of lemma (15–30 mm long in J. plumosa), persistent. Awn bases twisted. Palea conspicuous and relatively short (e.g., only about 20% of the lemma length in J. plumosa), tightly clasped by lemma, thinner than lemma, indurated or not indurated, not keeled, glabrous. Callus long (1–1.5 mm), pointed. Stamens 3. Grain small to medium sized (3–5 mm long), narrowly fusiform, compressed dorsiventrally.

Kranz Anatomy. C3.

Habitat. Mesophytic to xerophytic. Species of open habitats.

Classification. Pooideae; Stipeae.

Notes. Jarava is recognised (from other stipoid genera) by the non-plumose awn, by the upper part of the lemma bearing long hairs that form an apical pappus, by the lemma being usually less thickened than many other genera, and the palea being much shorter than the lemma (Jacobs and Everett, 1997).

Types Species. J. ichu Ruiz & Pav.

Biogeographic Element. Clifford & Simon 1981, Simon & Jacobs 1990: Naturalised.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith