Echinochloa esculenta*

Echinochloa esculenta (A. Braun) H. Scholz. Taxon 41: 523 (1992).

Classification. (GPWG 2001) : Subfamily Panicoideae. Paniceae.

Basionym and/or Replacement Name:  Panicum esculentum A. Braun, Index Sem. (Berlin) 1861(App.): 3 (1861).

Type of Basionym or Protologue Information: NT: Koernicke s.n., Cult. Hort. Bonn-Poppelsdorf, 28 Oct 1875 (B). NT designated by Scholz, Taxon 41: 523 (1992). "E.seminibus a Th. Schottmüller, expeditionis navalis Borussicae hortulano, a Japonia, ubi prope Jeddo et Jokuhama colitur, missis provenit.",.

Recent synonyms: E. utilis.

Key references (books and floras): [2002] D.Sharp & B.K.Simon, AusGrass, Grasses of Australia, [2006] J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia (447), [2008] S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Walley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales (227).

Illustrations: [2006] J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia  (447, Fig. 379), [2008] S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Whalley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales, 4th edn (227).

Habit. Annual. Rhizomes absent. Stolons absent. Culms erect, stature robust to moderate, 30–150 cm tall, 4–7 -noded. Ligule absent. Leaf-blades 8–35 cm long, 7–25 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous or scabrous.

Inflorescence. Inflorescence compound, a panicle of racemes. Racemes 12–15, arcuate to flexuous, 0.5–3 cm long. Central inflorescence axis 7–20 cm long.

Spikelets. Spikelets sessile. Fertile spikelets 2-flowered, the lower floret barren (rarely male), the upper fertile, comprising 1 basal sterile florets, comprising 1 fertile floret(s), without rachilla extension, elliptic or obovate, dorsally compressed, 3–4 mm long. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret.

Glumes. Glumes dissimilar, thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate, membranous, without keels, 3–5 -nerved. Lower glume apex mucronate. Upper glume obovate, 3.1–4 mm long, membranous, without keels, 5 -nerved. Upper glume surface indumented. Upper glume apex mucronate. Florets. Basal sterile florets 1, barren, with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret 100 % of length of spikelet, membranous or chartaceous, 7 -nerved, muticous or awned.

Fertile lemma 2.5–3.5 mm long, without keel, 5 -nerved. Lemma apex muticous. Anthers 3.

Continental Distribution: Temperate Asia, Australasia, and Pacific.

Australian Distribution: Western Australia, South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania.

Western Australia: Gardner. Menzies. South Australia: Eastern, Northern Lofty, Murray, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South-eastern. Queensland: Darling Downs, Maranoa, Moreton, Port Curtis, South Kennedy, Cook, Warrego. New South Wales: Central Coast, Central Tablelands, Southern Tablelands, North-Western Slopes, Central-Western Slopes, North-Western Plains, South-Western Plains. Victoria: East Gippsland, Gippsland Plain, Midlands, Murray Mallee, Wannon. Tasmania: East Coast.

Notes. Generally similar to E. crus-galli but has a denser inflorescence with compacted primary branches.

Introduced; W.A., S.A., Qld, N.S.W., A.C.T., and Vic. In tropical heaths, tropical and subtropical rain forests, temperate wet sclerophyll forests, dry sclerophyll forests, temperate sub-humid woodlands, semi-arid shrub woodlands, and eucalypt shrublands. Grown for forage and bird seed and frequently escapes cultivation. Flowers Sept.-Apr.



Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith