Monodia Kew Bull. 40(3): 659–661 (1985).

Derivation:. From the Greek monos (alone, single) and odous (tooth), referring to the single lemma awn.

Taxonomic revisions, nomenclatural references:. S.W.L.Jacobs, Kew Bull. 40: 659–661 (1985).

Key references (keys and floras):. S.W.L.Jacobs, Flora of the Kimberley Region 1166–1173 (1992); B.K.Simon, Key to Australian Grasses 133 (1993); D.Sharp and B.K.Simon, AusGrass (2002); K.Mallet (ed.), Flora of Australia 44B: Poaceae 3: 259 (2005).

W.D.Clayton & S.A.Renvoize, Genera Graminum (1986), genus (311).

Native, endemic. 1 species, from Australia. WA.

Habit. Hummock forming perennial, tufted. Leaf blades narrow (about 60 cm long), hard, woody, needle-like (pungent). Ligule a fringe of hairs.

Inflorescence. Inflorescence of spicate main branches (?) or paniculate.

Spikelets. Spikelets laterally compressed, shortly pedicelled; with naked rachilla extension. Fertile spikelets laterally compressed, disarticulating above glumes.

Glumes. Glumes more or less equal, exceeding florets, long relative to adjacent lemmas, hairless, glabrous to scabrous, pointed (acute), awnless, similar. Lower glume 9 nerved or 11 nerved. Upper glume 3 nerved or 5 nerved.

Florets. Fertile florets 1. Lemmas convolute, incised (2 lobed), not deeply cleft (the lobes short, membranous, unequal), awned, 3 nerved, not keeled. Awns 1, from a sinus, geniculate (the column lightly twisted, the bristle falcate), hairless, much longer than body of lemma (5–6 cm long), persistent. Palea relatively long, 2 nerved, 2 keeled (the rachilla borne within the groove between). Palea keels wingless. Callus long, pointed (oblique). Lodicules 2. Stamens 3. Stigmas 2. Grain ellipsoid.

Kranz Anatomy. C4.

Habitat. Xerophytic. Stony ground. Species of open habitats.

Classification. Chloridoideae; Triodieae.

Notes. Although the relationships of Monodia are clearly with Triodia (including Plectrachne) it differs in the single bisexual floret per spikelet and in the long, single, terminal awn on the lemma (Jacobs, 1985). From a cladistic study of the Triodeae based on molecular data by Mant et al (2000), Monodia is isolated within a clade that includes the 'soft' species and the tropical 'hard' species (B.K.Simon).

Types Species. M. stipoides S.W.L.Jacobs.

Biogeographic Element. Clifford & Simon 1981, Simon & Jacobs 1990: Endemic.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith