Koeleria* Syn. Pl. 97 (1805).

Derivation:. Named for the early German agrostologist, G.L.Koeler.

Key references (keys and floras):. G.Bentham, Flora Australiensis 7: 639–640 (1878); C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1 Gramineae 60 (1952); B.K.Simon, Key to Australian Grasses 127 (1993); S.W.L.Jacobs and K.L.McClay, Flora of New South Wales 4: 591–592 (1993); N.G.Walsh, Flora of Victoria 2:454–455 (1994); D.I.Morris, Student's Flora of Tasmania 4B: 240–241 (1994); E.Edgar and H.E.Connor, Flora of New Zealand 5: 317–322 (2000); D.Sharp and B.K.Simon, AusGrass (2002); S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Whalley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales, 4th ed, 288 (2008); A.Wilson (ed.), Flora of Australia 44A: Poaceae 2: 157–158 (2009).

W.D.Clayton & S.A.Renvoize, Genera Graminum (1986), genus (181).

Naturalised. About 60 species, from north and south temperate regions. 1 species in Australia, WA, SA, NSW, Vic, and Tas. Also New Zealand.

Habit. Perennial, tufted (usually) or rhizomatous (rarely). Leaf blades narrow. Ligule an unfringed membrane (sometimes puberulent and ciliolate).

Inflorescence. Inflorescence paniculate.

Spikelets. Spikelets laterally compressed, pedicelled; with naked rachilla extension. Fertile spikelets laterally compressed, disarticulating above glumes.

Glumes. Glumes unequal or more or less equal, shorter than spikelet, slightly shorter than adjacent lemmas, pointed, awnless, keeled, dissimilar or similar. Lower glume 1–3 nerved. Upper glume 3 nerved or 5 nerved.

Florets. Fertile florets 2–4. Lemmas similar in texture to glumes, entire at apex (usually) or incised, blunt, muticous or mucronate or awned (but then the awns relatively inconspicuous, by contrast with Trisetum), 5 nerved, 1 keeled. Awns 1, from a sinus or dorsal, non-geniculate, much shorter than body of lemma to about as long as body of lemma. Palea usually relatively long, gaping, apically notched, thinner than lemma (hyaline or membranous), 2 nerved, 2 keeled. Callus short. Lodicules 2. Stamens 3. Stigmas 2. Grain small. Hilum short, or long-linear. Embryo small. Endosperm liquid.

Kranz Anatomy. C3.

2n = 14, 26, 28, 40, 42, 43, 56, 70, 84, 112, and 126, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, and 18 ploid (and aneuploids), commonly adventive.

Habitat. Mesophytic, xerophytic. In dry grassland and rocky places. Mostly species of open habitats.

Classification. Pooideae; Poeae.

Notes. A genus of closely intergrading species, whose critical taxonomy has still to be worked out (Clayton and Renvoize, 1986). Closely related to Rostrairia, which is annual.

Types Species. K. gracilis Pers., nom.illeg..

Biogeographic Element. Clifford & Simon 1981, Simon & Jacobs 1990: Naturalised.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith