Hainardia* Boissiera 13: 178 (1967).

Derivation:. Named after P. Hainardi, phytogeographer and colleague of Greuter.

Syn: Monerma P. Beauv.

Key references (keys and floras):. C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1 Gramineae 188 (1952) as Monerma; M.Lazarides, Flora of Central Australia 469 (1981) as Monerma; J.P.Jessop, Flora of South Australia 4: 1924–1925 (1986); B.K.Simon, Key to Australian Grasses 123 (1993); S.W.L.Jacobs and K.L.McClay, Flora of New South Wales 4: 614–615 (1993); N.G.Walsh, Flora of Victoria 2: 440–441 (1994); D.I.Morris, Student's Flora of Tasmania 4B: 227 (1994); E.Edgar and H.E.Connor, Flora of New Zealand 5: 211–212 (2000); D.Sharp and B.K.Simon, AusGrass (2002); J.P.Jessop, Grasses of South Australia 127–129 (2006); S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Whalley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales, 4th ed, 271 (2008); A.Wilson (ed.), Flora of Australia 44A: Poaceae 2: 349–351 (2009).

W.D.Clayton & S.A.Renvoize, Genera Graminum (1986), genus (157).

Naturalised. 1 species, from Mediterranean to Iraq. WA, SA, NSW, Vic, and Tas. Also New Zealand.

Habit. Annual, tufted. Leaf blades narrow. Ligule an unfringed membrane.

Inflorescence. Inflorescence a single spike (with a hard, cylindrical, articulated rachis, the spikelets embedded in alternate notches, with broad side facing axis). Spikelet-bearing axes disarticulating at joints.

Spikelets. Spikelets all partially embedded in rachis, dorsally compressed, solitary; with naked rachilla extension. Fertile spikelets adaxial (with lower glume against rachis) (with reference to the missing lower glume), dorsally compressed, falling with glumes.

Glumes. Glumes one per spikelet (in all but the two-glumed terminal spikelet, the leathery upper glume alone is present and covers the hollow of the rachis), long relative to adjacent lemmas, hairless, pointed (acuminate), awnless, non-keeled. Upper glume 3–7(–9) nerved (the nerves raised).

Florets. Fertile florets 1. Lemmas lanceolate, less firm than glumes (membranous), entire at apex, muticous, 3(–5) nerved, with nerves non-confluent (the laterals short). Palea relatively long, entire to apically notched, thinner than lemma (hyaline), 2 nerved, 2 keeled. Palea keels wingless. Distal incomplete florets 1, underdeveloped (rudimentary). Lodicules 2. Stamens 1–3. Stigmas 2. Grain small to medium sized (3–4.3 mm long), compressed dorsiventrally to terete. Hilum short (ovate to elliptic, about 0.6 mm long). Embryo small. Endosperm hard.

Kranz Anatomy. C3.

2n = 26 and 52, 2 and 4 ploid, commonly adventive.

Habitat. Mesophytic. Meadows, etc., often coastal. Species of open habitats.

Classification. Pooideae; Poeae.

Notes. Formerly known as Monerma P.Beauv., the superflous name for Lepturus R.Br. H. Scholtz (1995) presents a case for the continued recognition of Monerma (B.K.Simon).

Types Species. H. cylindrica (Willd.) Greuter.

Biogeographic Element. Clifford & Simon 1981, Simon & Jacobs 1990: Naturalised.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith