Parapholis* Blumea Suppl. 3, 14 (1946).

Derivation:. From the Greek para (near) and Pholiurus (a related grass genus, q.v.); alternatively, from the Greek para (beside) and pholis (scale), alluding to the resemblance of the glumes to the scales of a snake.

Key references (keys and floras):. C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1 Gramineae 188–190 (1952); J.P.Jessop, Flora of South Australia 4: 1925 (1986); B.K.Simon, Key to Australian Grasses 139 (1993); S.W.L.Jacobs and K.L.McClay, Flora of New South Wales 4: 615 (1993); N.G.Walsh, Flora of Victoria 2: 439–440(1994); D.I.Morris, Student's Flora of Tasmania 4B: 226 (1994); E.Edgar and H.E.Connor, Flora of New Zealand 5: 213–216 (2000); D.Sharp and B.K.Simon, AusGrass (2002); J.P.Jessop, Grasses of South Australia 139–141 (2006); S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Whalley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales, 4th ed, 319–320 (2008); A.Wilson (ed.), Flora of Australia 44A: Poaceae 2: 348–349 (2009).

W.D.Clayton & S.A.Renvoize, Genera Graminum (1986), genus (155).

Naturalised. 6 species, from western Europe, Mediterranean to India. 2 species in Australia, WA, SA, NSW, Vic, and Tas. Also New Zealand.

Habit. Slender annual (erect or more or less prostrate), tufted. Leaf blades narrow. Ligule an unfringed membrane.

Inflorescence. Inflorescence a single spike or a single raceme (cylindrical, rigid, often curved). Spikelet-bearing axes disarticulating at joints.

Spikelets. Spikelets all partially embedded in rachis, laterally compressed (with flat side facing axis), solitary, pedicelled; with naked rachilla extension. Fertile spikelets more or less abaxial (with lower glume on side away from rachis) (closing off the hollowed internode) or abaxial (with lower glume on side away from rachis), laterally compressed, falling with glumes (shed with rachis joints).

Glumes. Glumes more or less equal, long relative to adjacent lemmas, pointed, awnless, similar (leathery). Lower glume 3–5 nerved (the nerves raised). Upper glume 3–5 nerved (the nerves raised).

Florets. Fertile florets 1. Lemmas less firm than glumes (membranous), muticous, 1 nerved or 3 nerved (the laterals very short), not keeled. Palea relatively long, tightly clasped by lemma, entire to apically notched, thinner than lemma (hyaline), 2 nerved, weakly 2 keeled. Palea keels wingless. Distal incomplete florets 1, underdeveloped (rudimentary). Lodicules 2. Stamens 3. Stigmas 2. Grain small (3–3.6 mm long), narrowly ovoid or ellipsoid, ventrally longitudinally grooved or not grooved, compressed dorsiventrally to terete. Hilum short. Embryo small. Endosperm liquid, or hard.

Kranz Anatomy. C3.

2n = 14, 28, 32, 36, 38, and 42, 2, 4, and 6 ploid, commonly adventive.

Habitat. Sandy maritime soils and saltmarshes. Species of open habitats.

Classification. Pooideae; Poeae.

Notes. Barely worth distinguishing from Pholiurus (Clayton and Renvoize,1986).

Types Species. P. incurva (L.) C.E.Hubb.

Biogeographic Element. Clifford & Simon 1981, Simon & Jacobs 1990: Naturalised.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith