Pholiurus* Fund. Agrostogr. 131 (1820).
Derivation:. From the Greek pholis (scale) and oura (tail), alluding to the scaly (snakelike) inflorescences.
Key references (keys and floras):. J.P.Jessop, Flora of South Australia 4:1926 (1986); B.K.Simon, Key to Australian Grasses 145 (1993); D.Sharp and B.K.Simon, AusGrass (2002); J.P.Jessop, Grasses of South Australia 141–143 (2006).
W.D.Clayton & S.A.Renvoize, Genera Graminum (1986), genus (154).
Naturalised. 1 species, from southeast Europe. SA.
Habit. Annual, tufted. Leaf blades narrow. Ligule an unfringed membrane.
Inflorescence. Inflorescence a single spike.
Spikelets. Spikelets all partially embedded in rachis, somewhat laterally compressed, solitary, sessile; with rachilla terminating in a floret. Fertile spikelets somewhat laterally compressed, falling with glumes.
Glumes. Glumes more or less equal, long relative to adjacent lemmas (exceeding them), hairless, obtuse, awnless, non-keeled, similar (leathery, strongly nerved). Lower glume 5 nerved. Upper glume 5 nerved.
Florets. Fertile florets 2. Lemmas less firm than glumes (membranous), entire at apex, pointed, muticous, 0–2 nerved, not keeled. Palea relatively long, 2 nerved, 2 keeled. Lodicules 2. Stamens 3. Stigmas 2. Endosperm liquid to hard.
Kranz Anatomy. C3.
2n = 14 and 36, commonly adventive.
Habitat. In coastal sands and saline soils. Species of open habitats.
Classification. Pooideae; Poeae.
Types Species. P. pannonicus (Host) Trin.
Biogeographic Element. Clifford & Simon 1981, Simon & Jacobs 1990: Naturalised.