Anthoxanthum* L.,. Sp. Pl. 28 (1753).

From Greek anthos (flower) and xanthos (yellow).

Key references
(keys and floras):
. G.Bentham, Flora Australiensis 7: 557(1878);
C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1 Gramineae 26–28 (1952);
E.E.Henty, Manual Grasses New Guinea 25 (1969); J.W.Vickery, Flora
of New South Wales, Gramineae
19: 282–283 (1975); J.C.Tothill and
J.B.Hacker, Grasses of Southern Queensland 100–101 (1983); J.P.Jessop, Flora
of South Australia
4: 1908–1909 (1986); B.K.Simon, Key to Australian
66 (1993); S.W.L.Jacobs and S.M.Hastings, Flora of New South
4: 564–565 (1993); N.G. Walsh, Flora of Victoria 2: 463–464
(1994); D.I.Morris, Student's Flora of Tasmania 4B: 249–250
(1994); E.Edgar and H.E.Connor, Flora of New Zealand 5: 339–341 (2000);
D.Sharp and B.K.Simon, AusGrass (2002); J.P.Jessop, Grasses of South
200– 202 (2006); S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Whalley & D.J.B.Wheeler,
Grasses of New South Wales, 4th Ed, 123 (2008); A.Wilson (ed.), Flora
of Australia
44A: Poaceae 2: 143–145 (2009).

W.D.Clayton &
S.A.Renvoize, Genera Graminum (1986), genus (195).

Naturalised. 20 species,
from north temperate regions and mountains of tropical Africa and Asia. 2
species in Australia, WA, SA, Qld, NSW, Vic, and Tas. Also New Guinea, Malesia
and New Zealand.

Habit. Annual
or perennial, tufted to decumbent. Leaf blades broad or narrow. Ligule an
unfringed membrane.

Inflorescence a single raceme (rarely) or paniculate, a spike-like panicle,

Spikelets laterally compressed, more than 2 flowered, with 1 fertile floret,
solitary, sessile to pedicelled; with rachilla terminating in a floret. Fertile
spikelets with lower incomplete floret(s) (2), disarticulating above glumes.

Glumes. Glumes
unequal, (the upper) long relative to adjacent lemmas, pointed, awnless,
keeled, similar (membranous). Lower glume 1 nerved. Upper glume 3 nerved.

Florets. Lower
incomplete floret(s) sterile. Lemmas awned, 3 nerved, exceeding fertile lemmas,
less firm than fertile lemmas (hairy), not becoming indurated. Fertile florets
1. Lemmas decidedly firmer than glumes, becoming indurated, entire at apex or
incised, muticous or awned, 1–7 nerved, glabrous. Awns when present, 1,
geniculate, much shorter than body of lemma to much longer than body of lemma.
Palea relatively long, entire, 1 nerved or 2 nerved or nerveless, not keeled. Stamens
1 or 3 (rarely). Grain small. Hilum short. Embryo small.

Kranz Anatomy.

2n = 10
and 20, 2 and 4 ploid, commonly adventive.

Mesophytic. Meadows, grasslands and in light shade. Shade species and species
of open habitats.

Pooideae; Poeae.

Notes. Anthoxanthum
 is related to Hierochloe but
is sufficiently distinct to justify generic status (Clayton and Renvoize,

Types Species. A.

. Clifford & Simon 1981, Simon & Jacobs 1990: Naturalised.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith