Glyceria maxima*

Glyceria maxima* (Hartm.) O. R. Holmberg. Bot. Not. 1919: 97 (1919).

Classification. (GPWG 2001) : Subfamily Pooideae. Tribe Meliceae.

Basionym and/or
Replacement Name:
 Molinia maxima
Hartm., Handb. Skand. Fl. 56 (1820).

Type of Basionym or
Protologue Information
: LT: (LINN-87.1). LT designated by Cope in Cafferty
et al., Taxon 49(2): 255 (2000).

Recent synonyms:
G. aquatica.

Key references
(books and floras):
[1952] C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1
Gramineae (102 as G. aquatica), [2002] D.Sharp & B.K.Simon, AusGrass,
Grasses of Australia
, [2002] J.Wheeler, N.Marchant & M.Lewington, Flora
of the South West (418), [2006] J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses
of South Australia
(179), [2008] S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Walley &
D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales (271), [2009] A.Wilson (ed.). Flora
of Australia
Vol 44A. Poaceae 2 (73).

[2006] J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia  (178, fig. 128), [2008] S.W.L.Jacobs,
R.D.B.Whalley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales, 4th edn
(271), [2009]. A.Wilson (ed.), Flora of Australia 44A: Poaceae 2
(75, Fig 11).

Perennial. Rhizomes present, elongated. Culms erect, 90–250 cm tall. Lateral
branches simple. Leaf-sheaths smooth or scaberulous, glabrous on surface.
Ligule an eciliate membrane, 3–7 mm long, truncate or obtuse (cuspidate).
Leaf-blades flat, 22–60 cm long, 7–20 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface smooth or
scaberulous, glabrous.

Inflorescence compound, a panicle. Panicle oblong or ovate, 15–45 cm long.

Spikelets pedicelled. Fertile spikelets many flowered, with at least 2 fertile
florets (3–10), comprising 3–10 fertile floret(s), with diminished florets at
the apex, elliptic or oblong, laterally compressed, 5–12 mm long.

Glumes. Glumes
similar, thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong or ovate, membranous,
without keels or keeled, 1 -nerved. Upper glume oblong or ovate, 2.8–4 mm long,
membranous, without keels or keeled, 1 -nerved.

Florets. Fertile
lemma 3–4 mm long, without keel or keeled, 7 -nerved. Lemma apex entire. Palea 2 -nerved. Palea apex
erose. Lodicules present. Anthers 3. Grain 1.5–2 mm long.

: Europe, Temperate Asia, Australasia, and North

Australian Distribution:
Western Australia, South
Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria,

: Drummond, Menzies, Warren. South Australia: South-eastern. Queensland: Darling Downs,
Moreton. New South Wales:
Northern Tablelands, Central Tablelands, Southern Tablelands, South-Western
Slopes, South-Western Plains. Victoria:
East Gippsland, Eastern Highlands, Gippsland Plain, Midlands,
Riverina, Volcanic Plain, Wannon. Tasmania:
North West, North East, Midlands, East Coast,
South West.

Notes. Previously used as
a forage grass in wet areas, but now a significant weed of wetlands in some

Introduced. Native of Europe of
temperate Asia. Wet areas such as creeks, dams
and waterholes. Flowers Nov.-Feb.

AVH 2011



Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith