Vulpia muralis* (Kunth) Nees. Linnaea 19: 694 (1847).
Classification. (GPWG 2001) : Subfamily Pooideae. Tribe Poeae.
Basionym and/or Replacement Name: Festuca muralis Kunth, Syn. Pl. 1: 218 (1822).
Type of Basionym or Protologue Information: HT: F.W.H.Humboldt & A.J.A.Bonpland s.n., Ecuador (P; IT: BM, US-91045 (fragm.)).
Key references (books and floras):  D.Sharp & B.K.Simon, AusGrass, Grasses of Australia,  J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia (172),  S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Walley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales (399),  A.Wilson (ed.). Flora of Australia, Vol 44A. Poaceae 2 (295),  J.R.Wheeler et al, Flora of the Kimberley Region (292, Fig.39).
Illustrations:  J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia (173, Fig. 123),  S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Whalley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales, 4th edn (399), . A.Wilson (ed.), Flora of Australia 44A: Poaceae 2 (292, Fig 39).
Habit. Annual. Culms erect, 6–60 cm tall. Leaf-sheaths smooth, glabrous on surface. Ligule an eciliate membrane, 0.5–1 mm long, entire or lacerate, truncate. Leaf-blades 1.6–14.5 cm long, 0.4–2 mm wide.
Inflorescence. Inflorescence compound, a panicle of racemes. Panicle linear, 1.5–15 cm long.
Spikelets. Spikelets pedicelled. Fertile spikelets many flowered, with at least 2 fertile florets (2–9), comprising 2–9 fertile floret(s), with diminished florets at the apex, cuneate, laterally compressed, 5–12 mm long.
Glumes. Glumes similar, thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate, membranous, without keels or keeled, 1 -nerved. Upper glume lanceolate, 3–6.4 mm long, membranous, without keels or keeled, 1–3 -nerved. Upper glume apex muticous or awned.
Florets. Fertile lemma 4–7 mm long, without keel, 5 -nerved. Lemma surface glabrous. Lemma apex awned, 1 -awned. Median (principal) awn 5.3–20 mm long overall. Palea 2 -nerved. Palea apex divided to base. Anthers 1(–3).
Continental Distribution: Europe, Africa, Temperate Asia, and Australasia.
Australian Distribution: Western Australia, South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria.
South Australia: Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Murray, Southern Lofty, South-eastern. Queensland: Darling Downs, Moreton, Wide Bay. New South Wales: Central Coast, Southern Tablelands, North-Western Slopes, Central-Western Slopes, South-Western Slopes, North-Western Plains, South-Western Plains, North Far Western Plains. Victoria: East Gippsland, Eastern Highlands, Gippsland Plain, Midlands, Murray Mallee, Riverina, Wimmera.
Notes. Introduced. Native to Europe and the Mediterranean. In moist or dry, open habitats. Flowers (May-)Aug.-Dec. Fruits Sept.-Nov.