Triticum aestivum*

Triticum aestivum* L. Sp. Pl. 1:
85 (1753).

Classification. (GPWG 2001) : Subfamily Pooideae.
Tribe Triticeae.

Type of Basionym or
Protologue Information
: LT: "Triticum 3" Herb. Clifford no. 24,
(BM). LT designated by Bowden, Canad. J. Bot. 37: 674 (1959).

Key references
(books and floras):
[1952] C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1
Gramineae (59 as Trisetum pumilum), [1981] M.Lazarides in
J.Jessop (ed)., Flora of Central Australia, [2002] D.Sharp &
B.K.Simon, AusGrass, Grasses of Australia, [2006] J.Jessop,
G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia (279), [2008]
S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Walley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales
(391), [2009] A.Wilson (ed.). Flora of Australia, Vol 44A. Poaceae 2

[1952] C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1 Gramineae (199,
Pl.59 as T.vulgare), [1984] N.T.Burbidge. rev. S.W.L.Jacobs, Australian
 (269), [2006] J.Jessop,
G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia  (280, fig. 217), [2008] S.W.L.Jacobs,
R.D.B.Whalley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales, 4th edn
(391), [2009]. A.Wilson (ed.), Flora of Australia 44A: Poaceae 2
(106, Fig.15).

Habit. Annual.
Culms erect, 60–100 cm tall. Mid-culm internodes hollow, thin-walled.
Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface or hairy. Leaf-sheath auricles present. Ligule
an eciliate membrane, 1–1.25 mm long, hyaline, truncate. Leaf-blades flat,
10–60 cm long, 7–15 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scabrous, indumented.

Inflorescence solid, a raceme. Racemes 1, linear or oblong, 5–18 cm long,
bearing 16–20 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis tough.

Spikelets sessile. Fertile spikelets many flowered, with at least 2 fertile
florets (2–4), comprising 2–4 fertile floret(s), with diminished florets at the
apex, ovate, laterally compressed, 10–15 mm long.

Glumes similar. Lower glume elliptic or ovate, chartaceous or coriaceous,
keeled, 2-keeled, winged on keel, 5–9 -nerved. Lower glume surface glabrous or
indumented. Lower glume apex muticous or mucronate or awned. Upper glume ovate,
6–11 mm long, coriaceous, keeled, 2-keeled, 5–9 -nerved. Upper glume surface
glabrous or indumented. Upper glume apex with a unilateral tooth, muticous or

Fertile lemma 10–15 mm long, keeled, 5–10 -nerved. Lemma apex muticous or
awned, 1 -awned. Median (principal) awn 0–150 mm long overall. Palea 2 -nerved.
Anthers 3. Grain 5–7 mm long.

: Europe, Africa, Temperate Asia, Tropical Asia, Australasia,
North America, and South America.

: Western Australia, South Australia, Queensland, New South
Wales, Victoria, Tasmania.

Western Australia:
Drummond. South Australia: Gairdner-Torrens Basin, Flinders Ranges, Eyre
Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty. Queensland:
Darling Downs, Moreton. New South Wales: Central Coast, Southern
Tablelands, Central-Western Slopes. Victoria: East Gippsland, Eastern
Highlands, Gippsland Plain, Grampians, Lowan Mallee, Midlands, Murray Mallee,
Otway Plain, Riverina, Volcanic Plain, Wannon, Wimmera. Tasmania: No
region given.

Cultivated as a cereal.

all states except N.T. Perhaps not truly naturalized; usually appearing where
seed is dropped but rarely persisting.

AVH 2011



Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith