Parapholis incurva*

Parapholis incurva* (L.) C.E.Hubb. Blumea
3: 14 (1946).

Classification. (GPWG 2001) : Subfamily Pooideae.

Basionym and/or
Replacement Name:
L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1051 (1753).

Type of Basionym or
Protologue Information
: LT: (LINN-1218.11). LT designated by Cuccuini in
Cafferty et al., Taxon 49(2): 243 (2000).

Key references
(books and floras):
[1878] G.Bentham, Flora Australiensis 7 (668 as Lepturus
), [1952] C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1 Gramineae
(190), [2002] D.Sharp & B.K.Simon, AusGrass, Grasses of Australia,
[2002] J.Wheeler, N.Marchant & M.Lewington, Flora of the South West (424),
[2006] J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia
(141), [2008] S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Walley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New
South Wales
(320), [2009] A.Wilson (ed.). Flora of Australia, Vol
44A. Poaceae 2 (348).

[1952] C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1 Gramineae (189,
Pl. 55), [2006] J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South
 (140, Fig. 94), [1984]
N.T.Burbidge. rev. S.W.L.Jacobs, Australian Grasses  (199), [2008] S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Whalley
& D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales, 4th edn (320), [2009].
A.Wilson (ed.), Flora of Australia 44A: Poaceae 2 (350, Fig. 47).

Habit. Annual.
Culms geniculately ascending, 2–49 cm tall. Ligule an eciliate membrane, 0.5–1
mm long. Leaf-blades 0.4–6.5 cm long, 0.4–2 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface

Inflorescence solid, a raceme. Racemes 1, incurved, smoothly terete, 1–11 cm
long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes.

Spikelets sessile. Fertile spikelets 1-flowered, comprising 1 fertile
floret(s), without rachilla extension, oblong, laterally compressed, 4–8.5 mm

Glumes. Glumes
similar, firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate, coriaceous, without
keels, 3–5 -nerved. Upper glume lanceolate, 4–8.5 mm long, coriaceous, without
keels, 3–5 -nerved.

Fertile lemma 3.4–5.5 mm long, without keel, 1(–3) -nerved. Anthers 3.

: Europe, Africa, Temperate Asia, Tropical Asia, Australasia,
North America, and South America.

: Western Australia, South Australia, New South Wales,
Victoria, Tasmania.

Western Australia:
Drummond. South Australia: Lake Eyre, Nullabor, Flinders Ranges, Eyre
Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo
Island, South-eastern. New South Wales: North Coast, Central Coast,
South Coast, Central-Western Slopes, South-Western Slopes, North-Western
Plains, South-Western Plains, South Far Western Plains. Victoria: East
Gippsland, Gippsland Plain, Grampians, Lowan Mallee, Midlands, Murray Mallee,
Otway Plain, Otway Range, Wilsons Promontory, Riverina, Volcanic Plain, Wannon,
Wimmera. Tasmania: Furneaux Group, North East, East Coast.

Introduced. Native to the Mediterranean and western Europe. Saline soils
subject to flooding, or coastal sandy and rocky places. Flowers Sept.-Dec.
Fruits Oct.-Dec.

AVH 2011


Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith