Hyparrhenia rufa*

Hyparrhenia rufa* (Nees) Stapf. Fl.
Trop. Africa
9: 304 (191).

Classification. (GPWG 2001) : Subfamily
Panicoideae. Andropogoneae.

Basionym and/or
Replacement Name:
Nees, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl..

Type of Basionym or
Protologue Information
: HT: Martius s.n., Brazil: Piauí (M; IT: L,

Key references
(books and floras):
[2002] D.Sharp & B.K.Simon, AusGrass, Grasses of
, [2008] S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Walley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses
of New South Wales

Perennial. Rhizomes present, short. Culms erect, 30–300 cm tall, 2–6 mm diam.
Mid-culm internodes solid. Lateral branches fastigiate. Leaves cauline. Ligule
an eciliate membrane, 2–3 mm long. Leaf-blades 10–60 cm long, 2–8 mm wide.

Inflorescence compound, composed of rames. Central inflorescence axis 5–80 cm
long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes.

Spikelets sessile, 1 in the cluster. Companion spikelets pedicelled, 1 in the
cluster. Basal sterile spikelets well-developed, 2 in number (lower raceme).
Companion spikelets developed, containing empty lemmas or male, 3.5–5 mm long.
Companion spikelet glumes muticous. Fertile spikelets 2-flowered, the lower
floret barren (rarely male), the upper fertile, comprising 1 basal sterile
florets, comprising 1 fertile floret(s), without rachilla extension, lanceolate
or elliptic, dorsally compressed, 3.5–5.5 mm long.

Glumes. Glumes
dissimilar, firmer than fertile lemma, shiny. Lower glume lanceolate,
chartaceous or coriaceous, without keels, 5–11 -nerved. Lower glume surface
indumented. Upper glume linear, chartaceous or coriaceous, without keels, 3
-nerved. Upper glume apex dentate, mucronate. Florets. Basal sterile
florets 1, barren, without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret 100
% of length of spikelet, hyaline, 2 -nerved.

Fertile lemma 3–4 mm
long, without keel, 1 -nerved. Lemma apex dentate, awned, 1 -awned. Median
(principal) awn from a sinus, 20–30 mm long overall, with a twisted column.
Palea absent. Lodicules present. Anthers 3.

Continental Distribution:
Africa, Temperate Asia, Tropical Asia, Australasia, Pacific, North America, and
South America.

: Northern Territory, Queensland, New South Wales.

Northern Territory:
Darwin & Gulf. Queensland: Cook, Leichhardt, Moreton, North Kennedy,
Port Curtis, South Kennedy, Wide Bay. New South Wales: Central Coast.

Infra-specific taxa: subsp. rufa,  subsp. altissima.

Peduncles glabrous or
pubescent; racemes not deflexed                                           H. rufa subsp. rufa            

Peduncles bearded with tubercle-based hairs; racemes
sometimes deflexed on maturity            H. rufa subsp. altissima

AVH 2011


Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith