Cynosurus echinatus*

Cynosurus echinatus* Linn. Sp. Pl. 72

Classification. (GPWG 2001) : Subfamily Pooideae.
Tribe Poeae.

Type of Basionym or
Protologue Information
: Habitat in europa pratis,.

Key references
(books and floras):
[1952] C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1
Gramineae (44), [2002] D.Sharp & B.K.Simon, AusGrass, Grasses of
, [2002] J.Wheeler, N.Marchant & M.Lewington, Flora of the
South West (409), [2006] J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of
South Australia
(119), [2008] S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Walley &
D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales (193), [2009] A.Wilson (ed.). Flora
of Australia
Vol 44A. Poaceae 2 (346).

[1952] C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western
1 Gramineae (43, Pl. 11), [1984]
N.T.Burbidge. rev. S.W.L.Jacobs, Australian Grasses  (99), [2006] J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst,
F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia  (120, Fig. 78), [2008] S.W.L.Jacobs,
R.D.B.Whalley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales, 4th edn
(193), [2009]. A.Wilson (ed.), Flora of Australia 44A: Poaceae 2
(345, Fig. 46).

Habit. Annual
or perennial. Culms erect or geniculately ascending, stature robust to moderate
or slender to delicate, 9–100 cm tall, 2–6 -noded. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on
surface. Ligule an eciliate membrane, 5–10 mm long, obtuse. Leaf-blades linear,
5–23 cm long, 3–14 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scabrous.

Inflorescence solid, a panicle. Panicle oblong or ovate or globose, 0.5–8 cm
long, 1–2 cm wide.

Spikelets sessile, 1 in the cluster. Companion spikelets sessile, 1–2 in the
cluster. Companion spikelets developed, containing empty lemmas, 7–13 mm long.
Fertile spikelets many flowered, with at least 2 fertile florets (2–5), comprising
1–5 fertile floret(s), with a barren rachilla extension, cuneate, laterally
compressed, 8–14 mm long.

Glumes. Glumes
similar. Lower glume lanceolate, membranous, keeled, 1-keeled, 1 -nerved. Upper
glume lanceolate, 6.4–12 mm long, membranous, keeled, 1-keeled, 2 -nerved.

Fertile lemma 5–7 mm long, without keel, 5 -nerved. Lemma apex entire or
dentate, awned, 1 -awned. Median (principal) awn apical or from a sinus, 6–16
mm long overall. Anthers 3. Grain 3–4 mm long.

: Europe, Africa, Temperate Asia, Australasia, North America,
and South America.

: Western Australia, South Australia, Queensland,
New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania.

: Drummond, Menzies, Warren, Eyre. South Australia: Lake
Eyre, Flinders Ranges, Northern Lofty, Murray, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island,
South-eastern. Queensland: Darling Downs. New South Wales:
Central Coast, Central Tablelands, Southern
Tablelands, South-Western Slopes. Victoria:
Murray Mallee, Wilsons Promontory, Snowfields, Wimmera. Tasmania: North East, Central Highlands, Midlands, East Coast.

Introduced.Native to the Mediterranean, now naturalised in N.Z. and the Americas. In
disturbed areas and open grasslands, often locally moist. Flowers Oct.-Feb.
Fruits Jan.-Apr.

AVH 2011


Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith