Chloris truncata

Chloris truncata R. Br. Prodr. 186 (1810).

Classification. (GPWG 2001) : Subfamily Chloridoideae. Cynodonteae.

Type of Basionym or Protologue Information: HT: R. Brown 6243, Australia: New South Wales: Port Jackson (BM; IT: E, K).

Key references (books and floras): [1810]. R.Brown, Prodromus (186), [1878] G.Bentham, Flora Australiensis 7 (612), [1952] C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1 Gramineae (219), [1981] M.Lazarides in J.Jessop (ed)., Flora of Central Australia (464), [2002] D.Sharp & B.K.Simon, AusGrass, Grasses of Australia, [2006] J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia (346), [2008] S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Walley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales (184).

Illustrations: [1952] C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1 Gramineae (221, Pl. 65), [1983] J.C.Tothill & J.B.Hacker, Grasses of Southern Queensland (156(7)), [1984] N.T.Burbidge. rev. S.W.L.Jacobs, Australian Grasses  (89), [2005] K.Mallet (ed.), Flora of Australia 44B: Poaceae 3 (Fig. 41F, Fig. 42B), [2006] J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia  (346, Fig. 278 & plate 13), [2008] S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Whalley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales, 4th edn (184).

Habit. Perennial. Stolons absent or present. Culms erect, 10–45 cm tall. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface. Ligule a fringed membrane, a ciliate membrane, 0.4–0.6 mm long. Leaf-blades 3–17 cm long, 1.5–3 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface smooth or scaberulous.

Inflorescence. Inflorescence digitate, with spicate branches.

Spikelets. Spikelets sessile. Fertile spikelets 1 or more flowered, with 1 fertile floret (1–3), comprising 1–3 fertile floret(s), with diminished florets at the apex, cuneate, laterally compressed, 1.8–4.5 mm long.

Glumes. Glumes similar, thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate, hyaline, keeled, 1-keeled, 1 -nerved. Upper glume lanceolate, 2.8–4.2 mm long, hyaline, keeled, 1-keeled, 1 -nerved. Upper glume surface smooth or asperulous or scabrous.

Florets. Fertile lemma 1.8–4.5 mm long, keeled, 3 -nerved. Lemma apex entire or lobed, awned, 1 -awned. Median (principal) awn subapical, 3–16 mm long overall. Lodicules present. Anthers 3. Grain 1.5–2.2 mm long.

Continental Distribution: Africa, Tropical Asia, Australasia, and Pacific.

Australian Distribution: Western Australia, Northern Territory, South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Lord Howe (*).

Western Australia: Austin. Irwin, Menzies, Roe, Avon, Coolgardie. Northern Territory: Central Australia South. South Australia: Lake Eyre, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, South-eastern. Queensland: Darling Downs, Leichhardt, Maranoa, Moreton, Port Curtis, Warrego. New South Wales: North Coast, Central Coast, Northern Tablelands, Central Tablelands, Southern Tablelands, North-Western Slopes, Central-Western Slopes, South-Western Slopes, North-Western Plains, South-Western Plains, North Far Western Plains, South Far Western Plains. Victoria: East Gippsland, Eastern Highlands, Gippsland Plain, Grampians, Midlands, Murray Mallee, Riverina, Volcanic Plain, Wannon, Wimmera.

Notes. Considered a good fodder grass in some areas of Australia, but weedy in others; useful for grassing waterways and as a coloniser.

Endemic; distributed across southern Australia, mostly S of 27°S excluding the Nullarbor Plain and Great Victoria Desert, from inland to near coastal areas, also on Lord Howe Island; introduced or occurs as an escape in the Fiji Islands, North America, and Europe. Prefers medium- to heavy-textured soils and often well-watered sites such as drainage lines, in grasslands, woodlands and forblands, often as a dominant understorey species; frost tender.

AVH 2011

Chloris trucata   

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith