Cenchrus echinatus* Steud. ex Doell,
in syn. Sp. Pl. 1050 (1753).
Classification. (GPWG 2001) : Subfamily
Type of Basionym or
Protologue Information: LT: Herb. van Royen, (L-912.356–116; ILT:
L). LT designated by Veldkamp in Jarvis et al., Regnum Veg. 127: 31 (1993); not
Hitchcock, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 12: 127 (1908). ST: Dickinson s.n.,
(books and floras):  C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1
Gramineae (286),  M.Lazarides in J.Jessop (ed)., Flora of
Central Australia (479),  D.Sharp & B.K.Simon, AusGrass,
Grasses of Australia,  J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses
of South Australia (432),  S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Walley &
D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales (180).
 C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1 Gramineae (287,
Pl. 83),  N.T.Burbidge. rev. S.W.L.Jacobs, Australian Grasses (87),  J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst,
F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia (434, Fig. 363),  S.W.L.Jacobs,
R.D.B.Whalley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales, 4th edn
or perennial. Rhizomes absent or present. Stolons absent. Culms geniculately
ascending, 10–90 cm tall. Ligule a fringe of hairs, 0.8–1.4 mm long.
Leaf-blades 4–25 cm long, 3–10 mm wide.
Inflorescence solid, of only a few spikelets (spicate). Panicle linear, 2–10 cm
long. Racemes 2–10 cm long.
Spikelets sessile, 2–3 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles, connate
into a cup below. Fertile spikelets 2-flowered, the lower floret barren (rarely
male), the upper fertile, comprising 1 basal sterile florets, comprising 1
fertile floret(s), without rachilla extension, ovate, dorsally compressed, 5–7
thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate, membranous, without keels, 1
-nerved. Upper glume ovate, 3.8–5.7 mm long, membranous, without keels, 3–5
-nerved. Upper glume surface indumented. Florets. Basal sterile florets
1, barren, with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret 100 % of length of
spikelet, membranous, 5 -nerved.
Fertile lemma 5–7 mm
long, without keel, 5 -nerved. Grain 3 mm long.
Distribution: Africa, Temperate Asia, Tropical Asia, Australasia, Pacific,
North America, and South America.
Distribution: Western Australia, Northern Territory, South Australia,
Queensland, New South Wales, Cocos Keeling Is, Ashmore Reef, Coral Sea Is.
Gardner, Fitzgerald, Dampier. Canning, Carnarvon. Irwin, Drummond, Avon. Northern
Territory: Darwin & Gulf, Victoria River, Barkly Tableland, Central
Australia North, Central Australia South. South Australia: North-western.
Queensland: Burke, Burnett, Cook, Darling Downs, Gregory North,
Leichhardt, Maranoa, Mitchell, Moreton, North Kennedy, Port Curtis, South
Kennedy, Warrego, Wide Bay. New South Wales: North Coast.
A widespread noxious weed, morphologically similar to and easily confused with C.
brownii. It generally has larger, wider-spaced burrs, straighter spines and
relatively small lower bristles.
N.T., Qld, and N.S.W. In temperate rain forests, tropical and subtropical wet
sclerophyll forests, dry sclerophyll forests, Brigalow forests, tropical and
subtropical sub-humid woodlands, temperate sub-humid woodlands, semi-arid shrub
woodlands, arid and semi-arid low woodlands, shrub steppe shrublands, acacia
shrublands, eucalypt shrublands, arid tussock grasslands, arid hummock
grasslands, coastal grasslands, and tropical sub-humid grasslands. Flowers
sporadically throughout the year.