Bromus hordeaceus*

Bromus hordeaceus* Linn. Sp. Pl. 1: 77 (1753).

Classification. (GPWG 2001) : Subfamily Pooideae. Tribe Bromeae.

Type of Basionym or Protologue Information: LT: Morison, Pl. Hist. Univ. 3: s. 8, pl. 7, f. 18 (1699), LT designated by Smith in Cafferty et al., Taxon 49(2): 248 (2000).

ET: (LINN-93.7). ET designated by Smith in Cafferty et al., Taxon 49(2): 248 (2000).

NT: Anon., (LINN-93.7). NT designated by P.M. Smith, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 42: 499 (1985), but not correct as there is original material [see Smith in Cafferty et al., Taxon 49(2): 247 (2000)].

Recent synonyms: B. mollis.

Key references (books and floras): [1952] C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1 Gramineae (96 as Serrafalcus hordeaceus), [2002] D.Sharp & B.K.Simon, AusGrass, Grasses of Australia, [2002] J.Wheeler, N.Marchant & M.Lewington, Flora of the South West (407), [2006] J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia (257), [2008] S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Walley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales (175), [2009] A.Wilson (ed.). Flora of Australia, Vol 44A. Poaceae 2 (85).

Illustrations: [1952] C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1 Gramineae (97, Pl.27 as Serrafalcus), [2006] J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia  (258, Fig. 199 as subsp. hordeaceus), [2008] S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Whalley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales, 4th edn (175), [2009]. A.Wilson (ed.), Flora of Australia 44A: Poaceae 2 (84, Fig. 12, 91, Fig.13).

Habit. Annual. Culms erect or geniculately ascending, 5–108 cm tall, 2–9 -noded. Mid-culm nodes pubescent. Leaf-sheaths hairy. Ligule an eciliate membrane, 1–3 mm long, erose. Leaf-blades (3.5–)5–22 cm long, (2–)3–7 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface indumented.

Inflorescence. Inflorescence compound, a panicle. Panicle elliptic or oblong or ovate or obovate, 1.5–16 cm long, 0.5–6 cm wide.

Spikelets. Spikelets pedicelled. Fertile spikelets many flowered, with at least 2 fertile florets (6–12), comprising 6–12 fertile floret(s), with diminished florets at the apex, oblong or ovate, laterally compressed, 12–22 mm long.

Glumes. Glumes similar. Lower glume oblong or ovate, chartaceous, without keels, 3–7 -nerved. Upper glume elliptic, 5–9 mm long, chartaceous, without keels, 5–9 -nerved.

Florets. Fertile lemma 7–11 mm long, without keel, 7–9 -nerved. Lemma surface indumented. Lemma apex dentate, awned, 1 -awned. Median (principal) awn subapical, 3–10 mm long overall. Lodicules present. Anthers 3.

Continental Distribution: Europe, Africa, Temperate Asia, Tropical Asia, Australasia, Pacific, North America, and South America.

Australian Distribution: Western Australia, South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, Norfolk I, Lord Howe.

Western Australia: Drummond, Dale, Menzies, Eyre, Avon. South Australia: Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South-eastern. Queensland: Darling Downs, Moreton, Warrego. New South Wales: Central Coast, South Coast, Northern Tablelands, Central Tablelands, Southern Tablelands, Central-Western Slopes, South-Western Slopes, South-Western Plains. Victoria: East Gippsland, Eastern Highlands, Gippsland Highlands, Gippsland Plain, Grampians, Lowan Mallee, Midlands, Murray Mallee, Otway Plain, Otway Range, Wilsons Promontory, Riverina, Snowfields, Volcanic Plain, Wannon, Wimmera. Tasmania: Furneaux Group, North West, North East, West Coast, Midlands, East Coast.

Notes. 1(0). Glume nerves obscure           4a. subsp. hordeaceus

 Glume nerves prominent           4b. subsp. molliformis.


subsp. hordeaceus

 In all states but the N.T. Native of Europe and Asia, naturalized in many countries. A weed of disturbed areas, crops, pasture and gardens.

subsp. molliformis

 Native of the Mediterranean. Widespread, often occurring as a weed in pastures. Flowers Oct.-Nov. Fruits Oct.-Jan.

AVH 2011


Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith