Arundo donax*

Arundo donax* L. Sp. Pl. 81

Classification. (GPWG 2001) : Subfamily
Arundinoideae. Tribe Arundineae.

Key references
(books and floras):
[1952] C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1
Gramineae (133), [1969] E.E.Henty, Manual Grasses New Guinea
(33), [2002] D.Sharp & B.K.Simon, AusGrass, Grasses of Australia,
[2006] J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia
(285), [2008] S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Walley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New
South Wales

[1983] J.C.Tothill & J.B.Hacker, Grasses of Southern Queensland
(116), [1984] N.T.Burbidge. rev. S.W.L.Jacobs, Australian Grasses  (67), [2005] K.Mallet (ed.), Flora of
44B: Poaceae 3 (Fig.1, E-F), [2006] J.Jessop,
G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia  (284, Fig. 220), [2008] S.W.L.Jacobs,
R.D.B.Whalley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales, 4th edn

reed-like in habit.

Perennial. Rhizomes present, elongated. Culms erect, stature reed-like, 200–800
cm tall, 0.5 mm diam. Mid-culm internodes hollow, thin-walled. Leaves cauline.
Leaf-sheath auricles present. Ligule a fringed membrane, a ciliolate membrane.
Leaf-blades drooping, 5–100 cm long, 10–80 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface smooth,

Inflorescence compound, a panicle. Panicle oblong, 30–60 cm long.

Spikelets pedicelled. Fertile spikelets many flowered, with at least 2 fertile
florets (2–7), comprising 2–7 fertile floret(s), with a barren rachilla
extension, cuneate, laterally compressed, 8–15 mm long.

Glumes. Glumes
similar, similar to fertile lemma in texture. Lower glume lanceolate,
membranous, keeled, 1-keeled, 3–5 -nerved. Lower glume apex muticous. Upper
glume lanceolate, membranous, keeled, 1-keeled, 3–5 -nerved. Upper glume apex

Fertile lemma 6–12 mm long, without keel, 3–9 -nerved. Lemma surface
indumented. Lemma apex muticous or mucronate or awned. Median (principal) awn
1–3 mm long overall. Palea 2 -nerved. Lodicules present. Anthers 3. Grain 2 mm

: Europe, Africa, Temperate Asia, Tropical Asia, Australasia,
Pacific, North America, and South America.

: Western Australia, Northern Territory, South Australia,
Queensland, New South Wales, Norfolk I, Macquarie, Heard.

Western Australia:
Drummond, Dale, Menzies, Warren. Northern Territory: Central Australia
South. South Australia: Eastern, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty. Queensland:
Cook, Moreton, North Kennedy, Darling Downs. New South Wales: North
Coast, Central Coast.

Introduced from the Mediterranean, widespread in Australia, disturbed sites,
often along stream or canal banks. Flowers March to July.

AVH 2011



Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith