Arthraxon hispidus

Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino. Bot.
Mag. (Tokyo)
26: 214 (1912).

Classification. (GPWG 2001) : Subfamily
Panicoideae. Andropogoneae.

Basionym and/or
Replacement Name:
Thunb. Fl. Jap. 44 (1784).

Type of Basionym or
Protologue Information
: HT: Thunberg 1776, Japan (UPS (IDC 1036)).

Recent synonyms:
Arthraxon ciliaris P.Beauv.

Key references
(books and floras):
[1878] G.Bentham, Flora Australiensis 7 (524 as Arthraxon
), [1969] E.E.Henty, Manual Grasses New Guinea (as A.
), [1980] M.Lazarides, Tropical Grasses S.E.Asia (21),
[2002] D.Sharp & B.K.Simon, AusGrass, Grasses of Australia, [2008]
S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Walley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales

[1983] J.C.Tothill & J.B.Hacker, Grasses of Southern Queensland
(112), [1984] N.T.Burbidge. rev. S.W.L.Jacobs, Australian Grasses  (63), [2008] S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Whalley &
D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales, 4th edn (134).

Derivation: L.
bearing coarse stiff hairs. Plant wholly or partly rough to the touch.

Habit. Annual.
Culms sprawling, stature slender to delicate, 15–75 cm tall, 0.3–1 mm diam.
Mid-culm nodes pubescent. Leaf-sheaths hairy. Ligule a fringed membrane, a
ciliolate membrane, 0.5–2 mm long. Leaf-blades lanceolate or ovate, 1–6 cm
long, 4–25 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous or indumented.

Inflorescence subdigitate, with ramose branches. Rhachis fragile at the nodes.

Spikelets sessile, 1 in the cluster. Companion spikelets pedicelled, 1 in the
cluster. Companion spikelets represented by barren pedicels. Fertile spikelets
2-flowered, the lower floret barren (rarely male), the upper fertile,
comprising 1 basal sterile florets, comprising 1 fertile floret(s), without
rachilla extension, linear or lanceolate, laterally compressed, 3–8 mm long.

Glumes dissimilar, firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate,
chartaceous, much thinner on margins, without keels, 7–9 -nerved. Lower glume
surface glabrous. Upper glume lanceolate, chartaceous, keeled, 1-keeled, 3
-nerved. Florets. Basal sterile florets 1, barren, without significant
palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret 66 % of length of spikelet, hyaline or
membranous, 2 -nerved.

Fertile lemma 2–6 mm
long, without keel, 1 -nerved. Lemma apex dentate or lobed, muticous or awned,
1 -awned. Median (principal) awn dorsal, 0–20 mm long overall, with a straight
or slightly twisted column or with a twisted column. Palea absent. Anthers 2.
Grain 3.5–5 mm long.

: Africa, Temperate Asia, Tropical Asia, Australasia, Pacific,
and North America.

: Queensland, New South Wales.

Darling Downs, Moreton, Wide Bay. New South Wales: North Coast, Northern

Notes. Fringes
of rainforests and wet Eucalyptus forests of coastal SE Qld and northern
N.S.W. Extends through New Guinea to India, and Japan. Flowers Mar.--July.


Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith