Vulpia fasciculata* (Forssk.) Sampaio. Herb. Portug. 24 (1913).
Classification. (GPWG 2001) : Subfamily Pooideae. Tribe Poeae.
Basionym and/or Replacement Name: Festuca fasciculata Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 22 (1775).
Type of Basionym or Protologue Information: HT: Forsskål 1260, Apr 1762, Egypt: Alexandria (C).
Recent synonyms: V. membranacea auct.
Key references (books and floras):  D.Sharp & B.K.Simon, AusGrass, Grasses of Australia,  J.Wheeler, N.Marchant & M.Lewington, Flora of the South West (438),  J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia (172),  J.Wheeler, N.Marchant & M.Lewington, Flora of the South West (439),  S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Walley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales (398),  A.Wilson (ed.). Flora of Australia, Vol 44A. Poaceae 2 (291),  J.R.Wheeler et al, Flora of the Kimberley Region (292, Fig.39).
Illustrations:  J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia (172, Fig. 122),  S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Whalley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales, 4th edn (398), . A.Wilson (ed.), Flora of Australia 44A: Poaceae 2 (292, Fig 39).
Habit. Annual. Culms erect or decumbent, 7–60 cm tall, 2–3 -noded. Leaf-sheaths smooth, glabrous on surface. Ligule an eciliate membrane or a fringed membrane, a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades flat or involute, 1–11 cm long, 0.4–3 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface indumented.
Inflorescence. Inflorescence compound, a panicle of racemes. Panicle oblong, 2–12.5 cm long.
Spikelets. Spikelets pedicelled. Fertile spikelets many flowered, with at least 2 fertile florets (2–3), comprising 2–3 fertile floret(s), with diminished florets at the apex, oblong or cuneate, laterally compressed, 12–21.3 mm long.
Glumes. Glumes dissimilar. Lower glume ovate, membranous, without keels, 0–1 -nerved. Upper glume lanceolate, 10–18.7 mm long, chartaceous, keeled, 1-keeled, 3 -nerved. Upper glume surface scabrous. Upper glume apex awned.
Florets. Fertile lemma 8–20 mm long, keeled, 3–5 -nerved. Lemma apex awned, 1 -awned. Median (principal) awn 10–25 mm long overall. Palea 2 -nerved. Palea apex divided to base. Anthers 1–3.
Continental Distribution: Europe, Africa, Temperate Asia, and Australasia.
Australian Distribution: Western Australia, South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania.
Western Australia: Irwin, Drummond, Eyre, Avon. South Australia: Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South-eastern. New South Wales: South Coast. Victoria: East Gippsland, Gippsland Plain, Murray Mallee, Otway Plain, Otway Range, Wilsons Promontory, Volcanic Plain. Tasmania: North East, Midlands.
Notes. Introduced. Native to the Mediterranean, also in Europe. Often coastal in dry disturbed areas, often in sandy soils and sand-dunes. Flowers Sept.-Dec. Fruits Oct.-Mar.