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Taeniatherum

Taeniatherum* Tr. Sredneaz. Univ., Ser. 8B, 17: 38 (1934).

Derivation:. From the Greek taenia (ribbon) and ather (awn), alluding to flat-based lemma awns.

Key references (keys and floras):. J.P.Jessop, Flora of South Australia 4: 1886 (1986); B.K.Simon, Key to Australian Grasses 167 (1993); D.Sharp and B.K.Simon, AusGrass (2002); J.P.Jessop, Grasses of South Australia 275 (2006); A.Wilson (ed.), Flora of Australia 44A: Poaceae 2: 118 (2009).

W.D.Clayton & S.A.Renvoize, Genera Graminum (1986), genus (234).

Naturalised. 2 species, from the Mediterranean to northwest India. 1 species in Australia, SA.

Habit. Annual. Leaf blades narrow. Ligule an unfringed membrane.

Inflorescence. Inflorescence a false spike, with spikelets on contracted axes (the clusters reduced to spikelet pairs).

Spikelets. Spikelets dorsally compressed, paired, sessile (with the broad side facing the axis); with naked rachilla extension. Fertile spikelets dorsally compressed, disarticulating above glumes.

Glumes. Glumes unequal to more or less equal, hairless, scabrous, awned (awn-like), similar (indurated at the base). Lower glume 1 nerved or 3 nerved. Upper glume 1 nerved or 3 nerved.

Florets. Fertile florets 1. Lemmas attenuate to the awn, less firm than glumes to similar in texture to glumes, entire at apex, pointed, awned, without a germination flap, 3 nerved, not keeled. Awns 1, apical, non-geniculate, recurving, hairless (scabrid), much longer than body of lemma (4–12 cm long). Palea relatively long (about equalling the lemma), entire (obtuse) or apically notched (slightly), 2 nerved, 2 keeled. Distal incomplete florets usually 1, underdeveloped. Callus long, pointed (with only a few marginal spicules). Lodicules 2. Ovary hairy. Stamens 3. Stigmas 2. Grain medium sized (6–9 mm long), longitudinally grooved, compressed dorsiventrally, with hairs confined to a terminal tuft. Hilum long-linear. Embryo small. Endosperm hard.

Kranz Anatomy. C3.

2n = 14, 2 ploid, commonly adventive.

Habitat. Xerophytic.

Classification. Pooideae; Triticeae.

Types Species. T. caput-medusae (L.) Nevski.

Biogeographic Element. Clifford & Simon 1981, Simon & Jacobs 1990: Naturalised.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith