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Apluda L.,. Sp. Pl. 82 (1753).
From Latin apluda (chaff), alluding to the chaff-like groups of
(keys and floras):. G.Bentham, Flora Australiensis 7: 544 (1878);
E.E.Henty, Manual Grasses New Guinea 29 (1969); M.Lazarides, Tropical
Grasses S.E. Asia 18–19 (1980); W.D.Clayton & S.A.Renvoize, Genera
Graminum xx-xx (1986); D.ClayB.K.Simon, Key to Australian Grasses 66
(1993); D.Sharp and B.K.Simon, AusGrass (2002).
S.A.Renvoize, Genera Graminum (1986), genus (599).
Native. 1 species,
from tropical Asia to Torres Strait. Also New Guinea and Malesia.
Perennial, decumbent (often scrambling). Culms herbaceous. Leaf blades narrow.
Inflorescence paniculate, an open panicle with branches ending in single
spikelets, open, spatheate (each naviculate spathe enclosing a raceme reduced
to a single joint, with 3 spikelets), a compound pseudo-inflorescence (to 1
sessile and 2 pedicelled spikelets). Spikelet-bearing axes much reduced,
clustered (at the tips of the usually fascicled branchlets), disarticulating at
joints (the whole triplet deciduous from the minute peduncle).
Spikelets laterally compressed, 2 flowered, with 1 fertile floret, paired,
sessile and pedicelled (1 sessile and 2 pedicelled), in pedicelled/sessile
combinations (the pedicels flat and broad).
more or less equal, long relative to adjacent lemmas, awnless, dissimilar
(lower leathery, upper thinner and naviculate). Lower glume coriaceous, 11
nerved. Upper glume 3–5 nerved.
Fertile florets 1. Lemmas less firm than glumes, not becoming indurated, entire
at apex or incised, mucronate or awned (entire and mucronate, or deeply
bilobed/awned), 1 nerved, not keeled. Awns when present 1, from a sinus,
geniculate, much shorter than body of lemma to much longer than body of lemma.
Awn bases not flattened. Palea very reduced, not indurated (hyaline), nerveless.
Callus blunt (large and bulbous). Lodicules 2. Stamens 2–3. Grain compressed
dorsiventrally. Pericarp thin. Embryo large. Pedicels free of rachis (flat and
broad forming, with the lower glume of pedicelled spikelet, a triangular box
around the sessile spikelet). Pedicelled spikelets present, sterile and male
(one male or bisexual, the other reduced to a small glume).
2n = 20
and 40, 2 and 4 ploid.
Mesophytic. Thickets and forest margins. Shade species.
relative of Ischaemum with highly modified pedicels (Clayton &
Types Species. A.
Element. Clifford & Simon 1981, Simon & Jacobs 1990: Indo-Malayan.
mutica L. Sp. Pl. 82
(1753). Classification. (GPWG 2001) : Subfamily
Type of Basionym or
Protologue Information: India:, (LT: LINN-1213.1).
(books and floras):  G.Bentham, Flora Australiensis 7 (544),
 M.Lazarides, Tropical Grasses S.E.Asia (19),  D.Sharp &
B.K.Simon, AusGrass, Grasses of Australia.
blunt. Lacking awns or lemmas and/or glumes truncate.
Perennial. Culms decumbent or prostrate or sprawling, 30–300 cm tall. Mid-culm
nodes glabrous. Lateral branches branched. Ligule a fringed membrane, a
ciliolate membrane, 1–1.3 mm long, abaxially glabrous. Leaf-blades 3–25 cm
long, 1.5–10 mm wide.
Inflorescence compound, composed of rames. Rhachis obsolete.
Spikelets sessile, 1 in the cluster. Companion spikelets pedicelled, 2 in the
cluster. Companion spikelets rudimentary or developed (pair unequal), male, 2–5
mm long. Companion spikelet glumes muticous. Fertile spikelets 2-flowered, the
lower floret barren (rarely male), the upper fertile, comprising 1 basal
sterile florets, comprising 1 fertile floret(s), without rachilla extension,
oblong, laterally compressed, 2–6 mm long.
Glumes dissimilar, firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate or ovate,
coriaceous, much thinner above, without keels or keeled, 2-keeled, winged on
keel, winged narrowly, 11–13 -nerved. Lower glume surface glabrous. Upper glume
lanceolate, chartaceous or coriaceous, keeled, 1-keeled, 5–9 -nerved. Upper
glume surface glabrous. Florets. Basal sterile florets 1, male, with
palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret 90 % of length of spikelet, hyaline, 3
Fertile lemma 4 mm
long, without keel, 3 -nerved. Lemma apex entire or lobed, muticous or awned, 1
-awned. Median (principal) awn from a sinus, 4–12 mm long overall, without a
column or with a twisted column. Palea 0 -nerved, without keels.
Distribution: Temperate Asia, Tropical Asia, Australasia, and Pacific.
Distribution: Queensland, Cocos Keeling Is, Ashmore Reef, Coral Sea Is.
India through SE Asia to the Torres Strait, where one collection is known from Pandanus
woodland of Saibai Is.. Flowers July.