Arundo* L.,. Sp. Pl. 81 (1753).
From Latin arundo (reed).
(keys and floras):. C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1 Gramineae
133 (1952); E.E.Henty, Manual Grasses New Guinea 33 (1969);
M.Lazarides, Tropical Grasses S.E. Asia 151–152 (1980); J.C.Tothill and
J.B.Hacker, Grasses Southern Qld 116–117 (1983); J.P.Jessop, Flora of
South Australia 4: 1854 (1986); B.K.Simon, Key to Australian Grasses
74 (1993); S.W.L.Jacobs and S.M.Hastings, Flora of New South Wales 4:
563 (1993); E.Edgar and H.E.Connor, Flora of New Zealand 5: 419–421
(2000); D.Sharp and B.K.Simon, AusGrass (2002); K.Mallet (ed.), Flora
of Australia 44B: Poaceae 3: 6 (2005);J.P.Jessop, Grasses of
South Australia 283–285 (2006); S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Whalley &
D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales, 4th Ed, 135 (2008).
S.A.Renvoize, Genera Graminum (1986), genus (290).
species, from tropical and temperate regions. 1 species in Australia, WA, NT,
SA, Qld, NSW, and Vic. Also New Guinea and New Zealand.
Perennial, rhizomatous. Culms woody and persistent. Leaf blades broad. Ligule a
fringed membrane (short).
Inflorescence paniculate (plumose), an open panicle with branches ending in
single spikelets, open.
Spikelets laterally compressed, more than 2 flowered, with 2 or more fertile
florets, awned (shortly), solitary, pedicelled; with naked rachilla extension.
Fertile spikelets disarticulating above glumes.
more or less equal, about equal to spikelet, long relative to adjacent lemmas,
pointed, awnless or awned (shortly), keeled to non-keeled, similar
(membranous). Lower glume 3–5 nerved. Upper glume 3–5 nerved.
Fertile florets 2–7. Lemmas less firm than glumes to similar in texture to
glumes (membranous or hyaline), not becoming indurated, entire at apex or
incised, muticous to awned, 3–9 nerved, villous hairy (on the back). Awns when
present 1 or 3, the median similar in form to laterals (when laterals present),
from a sinus, non-geniculate, much shorter than body of lemma. Lateral awns
(when present) shorter than median. Palea relatively long to conspicuous and relatively
short (from half to two thirds the lemma length), thinner than lemma
(delicately membranous) or textured like lemma, 2 nerved. Distal incomplete
florets 3–5, underdeveloped. Callus short, blunt. Lodicules 2. Stamens 3. Hilum
short. Embryo large.
2n = 60,
72, 110, and 112, 6 and 9 ploid (and aneuploid), commonly adventive.
Helophytic to mesophytic.
Notes. It is
related to Phragmites, but probably not as closely as the similarity in
habit would suggest (Clayton and Renvoize, 1986). Together with the genera Amphipogon, Molinia and Phragmites constitutes
the arundinoid clade of the GPWG (2001).
Types Species. A.
Clifford & Simon 1981, Simon & Jacobs 1990: Naturalised.