Eremochloa Pl. Jungh. 357 (1854).
Derivation:. From Greek eremos (solitary) and chloa (grass), alluding to the single terminal spike.
Taxonomic revisions, nomenclatural references:. N.L.Bor, Kew Bull. 7:309–317 (1952); N.L.Bor, Grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan (excluding Bambuseae) 145–148 (1960); A.G.Buitenhuis & J.F.Veldkamp, Blumea 46: 399–420 (2001).
Key references (keys and floras):. J.W.Vickery, Flora of New South Wales, Gramineae 19: 22–23 (1961); E.E.Henty, Manual Grasses New Guinea 96–97 (1969); M.Lazarides, Tropical Grasses S.E.Asia 36–37 (1980); J.C.Tothill and J.B.Hacker, Grasses of Southern Queensland 234–235 (1983); B.K.Simon, Key to Australian Grasses 116 (1993); S.W.L.Jacobs and C.A.Wall, Flora of New South Wales 4: 431–432 (1993); D.Sharp and B.K.Simon, AusGrass (2002); S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Whalley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales, 4th ed, 259 (2008).
W.D.Clayton & S.A.Renvoize, Genera Graminum (1986), genus (633).
Native. 9 species, from India, Sri Lanka, southern China, southeast Asia and Australia. 3 species in Australia, Qld and NSW. Also New Guinea and Malesia.
Habit. Perennial, tufted. Leaf blades narrow. Ligule an unfringed membrane.
Inflorescence. Inflorescence a single raceme (comprising axillary or terminal spike-like, slender flattened racemes), a single raceme or spike. Spikelet-bearing axes spikelike (exserted on long slender peduncles, curved, with imbricate spikelets), with heteromorphic spikelets (the pedicelled spikelets very reduced), solitary, with spikelets in pairs, one sessile, the other pedicelled, disarticulating at joints. Internodes with a basal callus-knob, densely long-hairy to somewhat hairy.
Spikelets. Spikelets all partially embedded in rachis, dorsally compressed, 2 flowered, with 1 fertile floret, paired, sessile and pedicelled, in pedicelled/sessile combinations; sessile spikelet with lower incomplete floret. Fertile spikelets falling with glumes (and with the adjacent internode and pedicel).
Glumes. Glumes unequal, (the longer) long relative to adjacent lemmas, awnless, dissimilar (the lower 2-keeled and spiny on the margins, the upper naviculate, smooth, glabrous). Lower glume two-keeled, prickly (the lower keels with filiform or flattened scabrid curved or horizontal spines), 5–9 nerved. Upper glume 3 nerved.
Florets. Lower incomplete floret(s) male. Lemmas awnless, more or less equalling fertile lemmas to exceeding fertile lemmas, similar in texture to fertile lemmas (hyaline), not becoming indurated. Fertile florets 1. Lemmas less firm than glumes (hyaline), not becoming indurated, entire at apex, pointed, muticous, 0 nerved, glabrous. Palea textured like lemma (hyaline), nerveless. Lodicules 2. Stamens 3. Grain small, compressed dorsiventrally. Hilum short. Embryo large. Pedicels free of rachis (flattened). Pedicelled spikelets much reduced (to a single glume).
Kranz Anatomy. C4.
2n = 18, 2 ploid.
Habitat. Mesophytic. Short grassland. Species of open habitats.
Classification. Panicoideae; Andropogoneae.
Notes. A homogeneous genus related to Coelorachis (=Mnesithea) (Clayton and Renvoize, 1986).
Types Species. E. horneri Buse = E. ciliaris (L.) Merr.
Biogeographic Element. Clifford & Simon 1981, Simon & Jacobs 1990: Indo-Malayan