Amphipogon R.Br. Prodr. 175 (1810).
From Greek amphi (double) and pogon (beard), alluding to the
hairs around the spikelet rachis.
Taxonomic revisions, nomenclatural references:. J.W.Vickery, Contr. N.S.W. Nat.
Herb. 1: 281–295 (1950).
(keys and floras):. G.Bentham, Flora Australiensis 7: 597–599(1878);
C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1 Gramineae 134–139
(1952); M.Lazarides, Flora of Central Australia 447(1981); J.C.Tothill
and J.B.Hacker, Grasses of Southern Queenslandld 94–95 (1983);
J.P.Jessop, Flora of South Australia 4: 1918–1919 (1986);
T.D.Macfarlane, Flora of the Kimberley Region 1120, 1122(1992);
B.K.Simon, Key to Australian Grasses 65–66 (1993); S.W.L.Jacobs and
S.M.Hastings, Flora of New South Wales 4: 564–565 (1993); N.G.Walsh, Flora
of Victoria 2: 545–546 (1994); D.Sharp and B.K.Simon, AusGrass (2002),
also under Diplopogon; K.Mallet (ed.), Flora of Australia 44B: Poaceae
3: 9–18 (2005); J.P.Jessop, Grasses of South Australia 281–283
(2006); S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Whalley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New
South Wales, 4th Ed, 120 (2008).
W.D.Clayton & S.A.Renvoize, Genera Graminum (1986), genus (283).
Native, endemic. C. 11 species. 9 species in Australia, WA, NT, SA, Qld, NSW, and Vic.
Perennial, tufted (to short-rhizomatous). Leaf blades narrow, hard, woody,
needle-like. Ligule a fringe of hairs.
Inflorescence a single spike (or approaching one) or paniculate, a spike-like
panicle, contracted or capitate (often with sterile spikelets forming a basal
Spikelets laterally compressed, 1 flowered, with 1 fertile floret, awned
(shortly), sessile to pedicelled. Fertile spikelets abaxial (with lower glume
on side away from rachis), disarticulating above glumes.
Glumes. Glumes more or less equal, shorter than adjacent lemmas to long relative to adjacent
lemmas, hairy or hairless, usually entire, awned to awnless, non-keeled,
similar (acute, obtuse, or tapering into an awn-like point, membranous or
papery). Lower glume 3 nerved. Upper glume 3 nerved.
Fertile florets 1. Lemmas becoming decidedly firmer than glumes, not becoming
indurated, incised, deeply cleft, awned, without a germination flap, 3 nerved,
hairy or glabrous. Awns 3, the median similar in form to laterals,
non-geniculate, hairless to hairy, about as long as body of lemma to much
longer than body of lemma. Lateral awns about equalling median. Palea
relatively long, apically notched to deeply bifid, with apical setae or awned,
textured like lemma, 2 nerved, not keeled. Callus short or long (short and
obtuse, or long and stipitate). Lodicules 2. Stamens 3. Grain compressed
dorsiventrally. Hilum short. Embryo small.
Xerophytic. Dry sandy grassland. Species of open habitats.
Notes. A genus of 2 endemic species to South America, 1 from both New Zealand and Australia,
and the remainder endemic in Australia. The species are mainly aquatic or
semi-aquatic. Placed as sister taxon to Arundo, together with
Phragmites and Molinia in the arundinoid clade by GPWG (2001).
Biogeographic Element. Clifford & Simon 1981, Simon & Jacobs 1990: Endemic.