Calamagrostis* Fam. Pl. 2: 31, 530 (1763).
Derivation:. From the Greek kalamos (a reed) and agrostis (a kind of grass), the type species being a reedy grass.
Key references (keys and floras):. B.K.Simon, Key to Australian Grasses 82 (1993); D.I.Morris, Student's Flora of Tasmania 4B: 273–274 (1994); D.Sharp and B.K.Simon, AusGrass (2002); A.Wilson (ed.), Flora of Australia 44A: Poaceae 2: 235–237 (2009).
W.D.Clayton & S.A.Renvoize, Genera Graminum (1986), genus (198).
Naturalised. About 230 species, from temperate regions. 1 species in Australia, Tas. Also Malesia.
Habit. Perennial (some species reed-like), rhizomatous or stoloniferous or tufted or decumbent. Leaf blades narrow. Ligule an unfringed membrane (sometime erose-ciliate).
Inflorescence. Inflorescence paniculate, open (rarely) or contracted.
Spikelets. Spikelets laterally compressed, 1 flowered, pedicelled; with naked rachilla extension, or with rachilla terminating in a floret. Fertile spikelets laterally compressed, disarticulating above glumes.
Glumes. Glumes more or less equal, exceeding florets, long relative to adjacent lemmas (the lemma only about 1/2–2/3 as long), pointed (acute to acuminate), awnless, keeled, similar. Lower glume 1 nerved. Upper glume 1–3 nerved.
Florets. Fertile florets 1. Lemmas less firm than glumes to similar in texture to glumes (usually hyaline), incised, awned, 3–5 nerved, not keeled. Awns 1, non-geniculate or geniculate, much shorter than body of lemma to about as long as body of lemma or much longer than body of lemma. Palea relatively long, entire or apically notched (via excurrent nerves), textured like lemma, 2 nerved, 2 keeled or not keeled. Lodicules 2. Stamens 3. Stigmas 2. Grain small. Hilum short. Embryo small. Endosperm liquid, or hard.
Kranz Anatomy. C3.
2n = 28, 42, and 56 or 56–91, 4, 6, and 8 ploid or 8–13 ploid, commonly adventive.
Habitat. Helophytic, mesophytic. Diverse habitats, including coastal sand. Shade species, or species of open habitats.
Classification. Pooideae; Poeae.
Types Species. C. lanceolata Roth.
Biogeographic Element. Clifford & Simon 1981, Simon & Jacobs 1990: Naturalised