Pholiurus* Fund. Agrostogr. 131 (1820).

Derivation:. From the Greek pholis (scale) and oura (tail), alluding to the scaly (snakelike) inflorescences.

Key references (keys and floras):. J.P.Jessop, Flora of South Australia 4:1926 (1986); B.K.Simon, Key to Australian Grasses 145 (1993); D.Sharp and B.K.Simon, AusGrass (2002); J.P.Jessop, Grasses of South Australia 141–143 (2006).

W.D.Clayton & S.A.Renvoize, Genera Graminum (1986), genus (154).

Naturalised. 1 species, from southeast Europe. SA.

Habit. Annual, tufted. Leaf blades narrow. Ligule an unfringed membrane.

Inflorescence. Inflorescence a single spike.

Spikelets. Spikelets all partially embedded in rachis, somewhat laterally compressed, solitary, sessile; with rachilla terminating in a floret. Fertile spikelets somewhat laterally compressed, falling with glumes.

Glumes. Glumes more or less equal, long relative to adjacent lemmas (exceeding them), hairless, obtuse, awnless, non-keeled, similar (leathery, strongly nerved). Lower glume 5 nerved. Upper glume 5 nerved.

Florets. Fertile florets 2. Lemmas less firm than glumes (membranous), entire at apex, pointed, muticous, 0–2 nerved, not keeled. Palea relatively long, 2 nerved, 2 keeled. Lodicules 2. Stamens 3. Stigmas 2. Endosperm liquid to hard.

Kranz Anatomy. C3.

2n = 14 and 36, commonly adventive.

Habitat. In coastal sands and saline soils. Species of open habitats.

Classification. Pooideae; Poeae.

Types Species. P. pannonicus (Host) Trin.

Biogeographic Element. Clifford & Simon 1981, Simon & Jacobs 1990: Naturalised.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith