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Ancistrachne

Ancistrachne S.T.Blake, Pap. Biol. Univ.
Queensland
1(19): 4 (1941).

Derivation:.
From Greek ankistron (fish-hook) and achne (glume), alluding to
the hooked hairs on the glumes.

Key references
(keys and floras):
. J.W.Vickery, Flora of New South Wales, Gramineae
19: 74–76 (1961); J.C.Tothill and J.B.Hacker, Grasses of Southern Queensland
96–97 (1983); R.D.Webster, Australian Paniceae 9–11 (1987); B.K.Simon, Key
to Australian Grasses
66 (1993); S.W.L.Jacobs and S.M.Hastings, Flora of
New South Wales
4: 452–453 (1993); D.Sharp and B.K.Simon, AusGrass (2002);S.W.L.Jacobs,
R.D.B.Whalley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales, 4th Ed,
121–122 (2008).

W.D.Clayton & S.A.Renvoize, Genera Graminum (1986), genus (456).

Native. 4 species,
from Philippines, eastern Australia and New Caledonia. 2 species in Australia,
Qld and NSW. Also Malesia.

Habit.
Perennial (with wiry culms), tufted or decumbent (sometimes shrubby, or
scrambling). Culms woody and persistent to herbaceous. Leaf blades narrow.
Ligule a fringe of hairs.

Inflorescence.
Inflorescence paniculate, a racemose panicle with spikelets all similar, open
(narrow, depauperate, the primary branches sometimes simple).

Spikelets.
Spikelets dorsally compressed, 2 flowered, with 1 fertile floret. Fertile
spikelets with lower incomplete floret(s), lanceolate, abaxial (with lower
glume on side away from rachis), falling with glumes.

Glumes. Glumes unequal, (the upper) long relative to adjacent lemmas, hairy (hispid with hooked
or flexuous hairs, the upper more so), pointed, awnless, non-keeled. Lower
glume 0–5 nerved (from vestigial to half the spikelet length). Upper glume 5–11
nerved.

Florets. Lower
incomplete floret(s) sterile. Lemmas hispid, the hairs hooked or flexuous, awnless,
7–9 nerved, more or less equalling fertile lemmas to exceeding fertile lemmas,
less firm than fertile lemmas (leathery), not becoming indurated. Fertile
florets 1. Lemmas decidedly firmer than glumes, smooth, becoming indurated to
not becoming indurated (cartilaginous to crustaceous), yellow in fruit or brown
in fruit, entire at apex, pointed or blunt, muticous to mucronate (the apex
incurved), with a clear germination flap, 5–7 nerved, glabrous, having flat
margins not tucked into palea. Palea relatively long, entire, textured like
lemma, indurated or not indurated, 2 nerved. Lodicules 2. Stamens 3. Grain
small, compressed dorsiventrally. Hilum short. Embryo large.

Kranz Anatomy.
C3.

Habitat.
Forests. Shade species.

Classification.
Panicoideae; Paniceae.

Notes. The
relationship of Ancistrachne within the Paniceae is not clear. The
uncinulate hairs on the glumes and lower lemma is a distinctive feature
(Webster, 1987).

Types Species. A. uncinulata (R.Br.) S.T.Blake.

Biogeographic Element. Clifford & Simon 1981, Simon & Jacobs 1990: Indo-Malayan.

AVH 2011

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith