Spartina x townsendii*

Spartina x townsendii* H. & J. Groves. Bot. Exch. Club Brit. Isles Rep.
1880: 37 (1881).

Classification. (GPWG 2001) : Subfamily
Chloridoideae. Cynodonteae.

Type of Basionym or
Protologue Information
: OM: [H. Groves {on US-878793}], 1 Sep 1879,
Great Britain: England: South Hampshire, St. G., mud flats near Hythe (W (ex
hb. Groves), US-1127161 (fragm. ex W), US-878793 (ex hb. Groves)). [presumably
an iso or syn type].

Key references
(books and floras):
[2002] D.Sharp & B.K.Simon, AusGrass, Grasses of
, [2006] J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South

[2006] J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia  (394, fig. 326).

Perennial. Rhizomes present, elongated. Stolons absent or present. Culms erect,
30–130 cm tall. Ligule a fringe of hairs, 1–2 mm long. Leaf-blades flat or
convolute, 6–30 cm long, 4–12 mm wide.

Inflorescence solid, a panicle. Central inflorescence axis 0–10 cm long.

Spikelets sessile. Fertile spikelets 1-flowered, comprising 1 fertile
floret(s), without rachilla extension, lanceolate or oblong, laterally
compressed, 12–19 mm long.

Glumes. Glumes
dissimilar. Lower glume linear, membranous, keeled, 1-keeled, 1 -nerved. Lower
glume surface indumented. Upper glume lanceolate, 12–18 mm long, herbaceous,
keeled, 1-keeled, 1–3 -nerved. Upper glume surface indumented.

Fertile lemma 12–18 mm long, keeled, 1–3 -nerved. Lemma surface indumented. Palea
2 -nerved. Lodicules absent or vestigial. Anthers 3.

: Europe.

: South Australia, Victoria.

South Australia:
Southern Lofty. Victoria: Gippsland Plain.

Introduced into Australia to reclaim salt lagoons and coastal areas, but did
not persist in most areas. Less effective than S. anglica in promoting
sediment accretion, as it spreads only slowly, by rhizomes and fragments.

mud-flats and mangrove swamps at Two Wells and Port Gawler in S.A., Currambene
Ck, N.S.W., possibly some estuaries and inlets of the S Gippsland coast in
Vic., although it is now believed that the main species in S Gippsland is the
fertile, more vigorously spreading S. anglica; endemic to southern
England, spread to other parts of the British and Irish coast, France and
Denmark; introduced elsewhere for coastal land reclamation.


AVH 2011


Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith