Imperata cylindrica

Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch. Nomencl.
ed. 3 , ed. 3, 3: 10 ( 1797).

(GPWG 2001) : Subfamily Panicoideae. Andropogoneae.

Basionym and/or
Replacement Name:
L. Syst. Nat. (ed. 2).

Type of Basionym or
Protologue Information
: Italy:, Anon.
(HT: LINN-96.2).

Key references
(books and floras):
[1810]. R.Brown, Prodromus (204 as Imperata
), [1878] G.Bentham, Flora Australiensis 7 (536 as Imperata
), [1952] C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1 Gramineae
(312), [1969] E.E.Henty, Manual Grasses New Guinea (as var. major),
[2002] D.Sharp & B.K.Simon, AusGrass, Grasses of Australia, [2006]
J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia (525),
[2008] S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Walley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South
(283 as var. major).

[1952] C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia
1 Gramineae (313, Pl. 92), [1984] N.T.Burbidge. rev. S.W.L.Jacobs, Australian
 (161), [2006] J.Jessop,
G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia  (524, fig. 447), [2008] S.W.L.Jacobs,
R.D.B.Whalley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales, 4th edn
(283 as var. major).

Perennial. Rhizomes present, elongated. Culms erect, 10–150 cm tall. Mid-culm
nodes bearded. Lateral branches simple. Leaves mostly basal. Ligule a fringed
membrane, a ciliolate membrane, 1.5 mm long. Leaf-blades erect, flat or
convolute, 3–100 cm long, 2–20 mm wide.

Inflorescence solid, a panicle. Panicle linear, 3–22 cm long. Rhachis tough.

Spikelets pedicelled, 2 in the cluster. Fertile spikelets 2-flowered, the lower
floret barren (rarely male), the upper fertile, comprising 1 basal sterile
florets, comprising 1 fertile floret(s), without rachilla extension,
lanceolate, terete, 2.2–6 mm long.

Glumes. Glumes
similar, firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume linear or lanceolate or oblong,
membranous, without keels, 3–7 -nerved. Lower glume surface indumented. Upper
glume oblong, 2.2–6 mm long, membranous, without keels, 5–7 -nerved. Upper
glume surface indumented. Florets. Basal sterile florets 1, barren,
without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret 50 % of length of
spikelet, hyaline, 0 -nerved.

Fertile lemma 1 mm
long, without keel, 0 -nerved. Palea 0 -nerved, without keels. Lodicules absent
or vestigial. Anthers 2.

: Europe, Africa, Temperate Asia, Tropical Asia, Australasia,
Pacific, and North America.

: Western Australia, Northern Territory, South Australia,
Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, A.C.T., Norfolk I (*), Lord
Howe (*), Christmas Is (*), Cocos Keeling Is, Ashmore Reef, Coral Sea Is (*).

Western Australia:
Gardner. Northern Territory: Darwin & Gulf, Victoria River. South
: Lake Eyre, Murray, Southern Lofty, South-eastern. Queensland:
Burke, Burnett, Cook, Darling Downs, Leichhardt, Moreton, North Kennedy, Port
Curtis, South Kennedy, Wide Bay, Maranoa. New South Wales: North Coast,
Central Coast, South Coast, Central Tablelands, North-Western Slopes,
South-Western Slopes. Victoria: East Gippsland, Gippsland Plain,
Grampians, Otway Plain, Otway Range, Wilsons Promontory, Riverina, Volcanic
Plain, Wannon, Wimmera. Tasmania: North West, North East, East Coast.

Three varieties have previously been recognised, with the name var. major
being applied to the Australian entity. However the varieties intergrade to
such a degree that individual specimens are difficult to identify.

in all States in wet areas. Throughout the Old World tropics extending to the
Mediterranean and Middle East. Flowers Jan.--Dec.

AVH 2011




Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith