Hyparrhenia rufa* (Nees) Stapf. Fl.
Trop. Africa 9: 304 (191).
Classification. (GPWG 2001) : Subfamily
Replacement Name: Trachypogon
rufus Nees, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl..
Type of Basionym or
Protologue Information: HT: Martius s.n., Brazil: Piauí (M; IT: L,
(books and floras):  D.Sharp & B.K.Simon, AusGrass, Grasses of
Australia,  S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Walley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses
of New South Wales (282).
Perennial. Rhizomes present, short. Culms erect, 30–300 cm tall, 2–6 mm diam.
Mid-culm internodes solid. Lateral branches fastigiate. Leaves cauline. Ligule
an eciliate membrane, 2–3 mm long. Leaf-blades 10–60 cm long, 2–8 mm wide.
Inflorescence compound, composed of rames. Central inflorescence axis 5–80 cm
long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes.
Spikelets sessile, 1 in the cluster. Companion spikelets pedicelled, 1 in the
cluster. Basal sterile spikelets well-developed, 2 in number (lower raceme).
Companion spikelets developed, containing empty lemmas or male, 3.5–5 mm long.
Companion spikelet glumes muticous. Fertile spikelets 2-flowered, the lower
floret barren (rarely male), the upper fertile, comprising 1 basal sterile
florets, comprising 1 fertile floret(s), without rachilla extension, lanceolate
or elliptic, dorsally compressed, 3.5–5.5 mm long.
dissimilar, firmer than fertile lemma, shiny. Lower glume lanceolate,
chartaceous or coriaceous, without keels, 5–11 -nerved. Lower glume surface
indumented. Upper glume linear, chartaceous or coriaceous, without keels, 3
-nerved. Upper glume apex dentate, mucronate. Florets. Basal sterile
florets 1, barren, without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret 100
% of length of spikelet, hyaline, 2 -nerved.
Fertile lemma 3–4 mm
long, without keel, 1 -nerved. Lemma apex dentate, awned, 1 -awned. Median
(principal) awn from a sinus, 20–30 mm long overall, with a twisted column.
Palea absent. Lodicules present. Anthers 3.
Africa, Temperate Asia, Tropical Asia, Australasia, Pacific, North America, and
Distribution: Northern Territory, Queensland, New South Wales.
Darwin & Gulf. Queensland: Cook, Leichhardt, Moreton, North Kennedy,
Port Curtis, South Kennedy, Wide Bay. New South Wales: Central Coast.
Infra-specific taxa: subsp. rufa, subsp. altissima.
Peduncles glabrous or
pubescent; racemes not deflexed H. rufa subsp. rufa
Peduncles bearded with tubercle-based hairs; racemes
sometimes deflexed on maturity H. rufa subsp. altissima