Echinochloa crusgalli* (L.) Beauv. Ess. Agrost. 53, 161, 169 (1812).
Classification. (GPWG 2001) : Subfamily Panicoideae. Paniceae.
Basionym and/or Replacement Name: Panicum crus-galli L.,.
Type of Basionym or Protologue Information: LT: Burser herb. 1: 303, (UPS). LT designated by Michael, Proc. Conf. Weed Control in Rice, 291–306 (1983).
Recent synonyms: E. crus-galli subsp. hispidula.
Key references (books and floras): . R.Brown, Prodromus (191 as Panicum Crus galli),  G.Bentham, Flora Australiensis 7 (479 as Panicum crus-galli),  C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1 Gramineae (253 as E. crus-galli),  E.E.Henty, Manual Grasses New Guinea (81),  M.Lazarides in J.Jessop (ed)., Flora of Central Australia (477 as E. crus-galli),  D.Sharp & B.K.Simon, AusGrass, Grasses of Australia,  J.Wheeler, N.Marchant & M.Lewington, Flora of the South West (413),  J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia (446),  S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Walley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales (226).
Illustrations:  N.T.Burbidge. rev. S.W.L.Jacobs, Australian Grasses (119),  J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia (446, Fig. 377),  S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Whalley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales, 4th edn (226).
Habit. Annual. Rhizomes absent. Stolons absent. Culms erect or geniculately ascending or decumbent, 25–150 cm tall, 4–7 -noded. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface. Ligule absent. Leaf-blades 0.5–35 cm long, 6–20 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface smooth.
Inflorescence. Inflorescence compound, a panicle of racemes. Racemes 5–15, ascending, 2–10 cm long. Central inflorescence axis 6–22 cm long.
Spikelets. Spikelets sessile and pedicelled, 2–4 in the cluster. Fertile spikelets 2-flowered, the lower floret barren (rarely male), the upper fertile, comprising 1 basal sterile florets, comprising 1 fertile floret(s), without rachilla extension, lanceolate or elliptic, dorsally compressed, 3–4 mm long. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret.
Glumes. Glumes dissimilar, thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblate, membranous, without keels, 3–5 -nerved. Lower glume apex mucronate. Upper glume ovate, 3–4 mm long, membranous, without keels, 5 -nerved. Upper glume surface indumented. Upper glume apex mucronate or awned. Florets. Basal sterile florets 1, male or barren, with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret 100 % of length of spikelet, membranous, 5–7 -nerved, muticous or awned.
Fertile lemma 2–3 mm long, without keel, 5 -nerved. Lemma apex mucronate. Anthers 3. Grain 1.5–2 mm long.
Continental Distribution: Europe, Africa, Temperate Asia, Tropical Asia, Australasia, Pacific, North America, and South America.
Australian Distribution: Western Australia, Northern Territory, South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, Norfolk I, Lord Howe.
Western Australia: Drummond, Dale, Warren. Northern Territory: Central Australia South. South Australia: Lake Eyre, Gairdner-Torrens Basin, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South-eastern. Queensland: Burnett, Cook, Darling Downs, Leichhardt, Maranoa, Moreton, North Kennedy, Port Curtis, South Kennedy, Warrego, Wide Bay, Mitchell. New South Wales: North Coast, Central Coast, South Coast, Northern Tablelands, Central Tablelands, Southern Tablelands, North-Western Slopes, Central-Western Slopes, South-Western Slopes, North-Western Plains, South-Western Plains, North Far Western Plains. Victoria: East Gippsland, Eastern Highlands, Gippsland Plain, Grampians, Lowan Mallee, Midlands, Murray Mallee, Otway Plain, Riverina, Volcanic Plain, Wannon, Wimmera. Tasmania: North West, North East, Midlands, East Coast.
Notes. Intergrades with other species of Echinochloa but can usually be distinguished on spikelet length, presence of setae on the primary branches, absence of a ligule and shape of the lemma apex.
Introduced. In tropical and subtropical rain forests, tropical and subtropical wet sclerophyll forests, temperate wet sclerophyll forests, dry sclerophyll forests, Brigalow forests, tropical and subtropical sub-humid woodlands, semi-arid shrub woodlands, and acacia shrublands. Widespread in eastern Australia where it is a weed in waste areas and agricultural land. Its native distribution is uncertain. Flowers mostly Nov.-Apr.