Arrhenatherum elatius

Arrhenatherus elatius (L.) P.Beauv. ex
J.Presl & C.Presl. Fl. Friburg 1:113 (1825).

Classification. (GPWG 2001) : Subfamily Pooideae. Tribe Poeae.

Basionym and/or
Replacement Name:
 Avena elatior
L., Sp. Pl. 1: 79 (1753).

Key references
(books and floras):
[1878] G.Bentham, Flora Australiensis 7 (586 as Arrhenatherum
), [1952] C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1 Gramineae
(39 as var. bulbosum), [2002] D.Sharp & B.K.Simon, AusGrass,
Grasses of Australia
, [2006] J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses
of South Australia
(202), [2008] S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Walley &
D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales (133), [2009] A.Wilson (ed.). Flora
of Australia
, Vol 44A. Poaceae 2 (127, 128 as var. elatius, var.

[1952] C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1 Gramineae (40,
Pl. 10 as var. bulbosum), [1983] J.C.Tothill & J.B.Hacker, Grasses
of Southern Queensland
(110, as var. bulbosum), [2006] J.Jessop,
G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia  (203, fig. 151 as var. bulbosum),
[1984] N.T.Burbidge. rev. S.W.L.Jacobs, Australian Grasses  (61 as var. bulbosum), [2008]
S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Whalley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales,
4th edn (133), [2009]. A.Wilson (ed.), Flora of Australia 44A: Poaceae
2 (129, Fig.19 as var. bulbosum).

Derivation: L.
taller. Culms taller than those of related species.

Habit. Perennial.
Culms erect, 50–180 cm tall, 3–5 -noded. Mid-culm nodes glabrous or pubescent.
Leaves cauline. Leaf-sheaths smooth or scaberulous, glabrous on surface or
hairy. Ligule an eciliate membrane, 0.5–2(–3) mm long, abaxially hairy.
Leaf-blades 10–23(–40) cm long, 4–10 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous,

Inflorescence compound, a panicle. Panicle lanceolate or oblong, 9–30 cm long.

Spikelets pedicelled. Fertile spikelets 1 or more flowered, with 1 fertile
floret or many flowered, with at least 2 fertile florets, comprising 1 basal
sterile florets (male), comprising 1(–3) fertile floret(s), with a barren
rachilla extension, oblong, laterally compressed, 7–11 mm long. Rhachilla
internodes elongated below proximal fertile floret.

Glumes. Glumes
dissimilar, thinner than fertile lemma, shiny. Lower glume lanceolate,
membranous, keeled, 1-keeled, 1 -nerved. Upper glume ovate, 7–11 mm long,
membranous, keeled, 1-keeled, 3(–5) -nerved. Florets. Basal sterile
florets 1, male, with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret chartaceous, much
thinner above, 7 -nerved, awned.

lemma 7–10 mm long, without keel or keeled, 7 -nerved. Lemma surface glabrous
or indumented. Lemma apex dentate, muticous or awned, 1 -awned. Median (principal)
awn subapical, 0.9–12 mm long overall, with a twisted column. Anthers 3.

: Europe, Africa, Temperate Asia, Australasia, Pacific, North
America, and South America.

: Western Australia, South Australia, Queensland, New South
Wales, Victoria, Tasmania.

Western Australia:
Drummond, Menzies, Warren. South Australia: Northern Lofty, Southern
Lofty, South-eastern. Queensland: Moreton, Wide Bay. New South Wales:
North Coast, Central Coast, South Coast, Northern Tablelands, Central
Tablelands, Southern Tablelands, North-Western Slopes, Central-Western Slopes,
South-Western Slopes. Victoria: East Gippsland, Eastern Highlands,
Gippsland Highlands, Gippsland Plain, Midlands, Otway Range, Riverina, Volcanic
Plain. Tasmania: North West, North East, West Coast, East Coast.

 In W.A., S.A. Qld,N.S.W., A.C.T. ,Viic and Tas.. A weed of
roadsides and perennial crops, particularly in areas of high rainfall. Flowers
Nov.-Feb. Fruits Nov.

Infra-specific taxa: var. elatius, var. bulbosum.

Basal internodes swollen and globose     A. elatius var. bulbosum

Basal internodes not swollen                     A. elatius var. elatius

AVH 2011



Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith