Arrhenatherus elatius (L.) P.Beauv. ex
J.Presl & C.Presl. Fl. Friburg 1:113 (1825).
Classification. (GPWG 2001) : Subfamily Pooideae. Tribe Poeae.
Replacement Name: Avena elatior
L., Sp. Pl. 1: 79 (1753).
(books and floras):  G.Bentham, Flora Australiensis 7 (586 as Arrhenatherum
avenaceum),  C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1 Gramineae
(39 as var. bulbosum),  D.Sharp & B.K.Simon, AusGrass,
Grasses of Australia,  J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses
of South Australia (202),  S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Walley &
D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales (133),  A.Wilson (ed.). Flora
of Australia, Vol 44A. Poaceae 2 (127, 128 as var. elatius, var.
 C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1 Gramineae (40,
Pl. 10 as var. bulbosum),  J.C.Tothill & J.B.Hacker, Grasses
of Southern Queensland (110, as var. bulbosum),  J.Jessop,
G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia (203, fig. 151 as var. bulbosum),
 N.T.Burbidge. rev. S.W.L.Jacobs, Australian Grasses (61 as var. bulbosum), 
S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Whalley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales,
4th edn (133), . A.Wilson (ed.), Flora of Australia 44A: Poaceae
2 (129, Fig.19 as var. bulbosum).
taller. Culms taller than those of related species.
Culms erect, 50–180 cm tall, 3–5 -noded. Mid-culm nodes glabrous or pubescent.
Leaves cauline. Leaf-sheaths smooth or scaberulous, glabrous on surface or
hairy. Ligule an eciliate membrane, 0.5–2(–3) mm long, abaxially hairy.
Leaf-blades 10–23(–40) cm long, 4–10 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous,
Inflorescence compound, a panicle. Panicle lanceolate or oblong, 9–30 cm long.
Spikelets pedicelled. Fertile spikelets 1 or more flowered, with 1 fertile
floret or many flowered, with at least 2 fertile florets, comprising 1 basal
sterile florets (male), comprising 1(–3) fertile floret(s), with a barren
rachilla extension, oblong, laterally compressed, 7–11 mm long. Rhachilla
internodes elongated below proximal fertile floret.
dissimilar, thinner than fertile lemma, shiny. Lower glume lanceolate,
membranous, keeled, 1-keeled, 1 -nerved. Upper glume ovate, 7–11 mm long,
membranous, keeled, 1-keeled, 3(–5) -nerved. Florets. Basal sterile
florets 1, male, with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret chartaceous, much
thinner above, 7 -nerved, awned.
lemma 7–10 mm long, without keel or keeled, 7 -nerved. Lemma surface glabrous
or indumented. Lemma apex dentate, muticous or awned, 1 -awned. Median (principal)
awn subapical, 0.9–12 mm long overall, with a twisted column. Anthers 3.
Distribution: Europe, Africa, Temperate Asia, Australasia, Pacific, North
America, and South America.
Distribution: Western Australia, South Australia, Queensland, New South
Wales, Victoria, Tasmania.
Drummond, Menzies, Warren. South Australia: Northern Lofty, Southern
Lofty, South-eastern. Queensland: Moreton, Wide Bay. New South Wales:
North Coast, Central Coast, South Coast, Northern Tablelands, Central
Tablelands, Southern Tablelands, North-Western Slopes, Central-Western Slopes,
South-Western Slopes. Victoria: East Gippsland, Eastern Highlands,
Gippsland Highlands, Gippsland Plain, Midlands, Otway Range, Riverina, Volcanic
Plain. Tasmania: North West, North East, West Coast, East Coast.
In W.A., S.A. Qld,N.S.W., A.C.T. ,Viic and Tas.. A weed of
roadsides and perennial crops, particularly in areas of high rainfall. Flowers
Nov.-Feb. Fruits Nov.
Infra-specific taxa: var. elatius, var. bulbosum.
Basal internodes swollen and globose A. elatius var. bulbosum
Basal internodes not swollen A. elatius var. elatius