1. Spikelets to 7 mm wide; pedicel articulated *E. superba (NT VIC SA QLD)
Spikelets less than 5 mm wide; pedicel not articulated 2

2. Plants distinctly glandular on culms below nodes or on leaf margins, inflorescence branches, pedicels, glumes or lemmas 3
Plants not or sometimes faintly glandular 12

3. Annuals 4
Perennials 9

4. Plants glandular on inflorescence branches, pedicels, glumes or lemmas 5
Plants glandular on culms below nodes
and/or leaf margins

5. Spikelets 2-4 mm wide *E. cilianensis (NSW VIC TAS NT SA WA QLD)
Spikelets less than 2 mm wide 6

6. Palea keels as long as the palea and not dividing at apex; glumes keeled *E. minor (NSW VIC NT SA WA QLD)
E. pooides
Palea keels shorter than the palea and
dividing apically into 3 small lobes; glumes rounded on back

7. Spikelets 0.5-1mm wide; palea persistent E. crateriformis (NT WA)
Spikelet 1-1.5mm wide; palea deciduous *E. pilosa (VIC NSW NT WA QLD)

8. Inflorescence terminal only; caryopsis
smooth on surface
*E. mexicana (NSW VIC SA WA QLD)
E. neomexicana, E. virescens
Inflorescence terminal on culms and
branches and often axillary; caryopsis reticulate on surface
*E. barrelieri (NSW NT SA WA)



Plants viscid, with prickly tubercles; culm base bulbous E. olida (NT WA QLD)
Plants not viscid, without prickly tubercles; culm base fibrous 10

Spikelets mauve to purple, 2-4 x 1-1.2 mm *E. trichophora (NSW QLD)
Spikelets yellow to olive-green 11
11. Pedicels encircled by yellow bands; panicle
branches not thickened
E. leptostachya (NSW VIC QLD)
Pedicels without yellow bands; panicle
branches distinctly thickened
E. alveiformis (NSW VIC QLD)
E. molybdea

12. Spikelets terete or ±biconvex 13
Spikelets ±laterally compressed 26

13. Lemma with lateral nerves closer to margin
than to mid-nerve
Lemma with lateral nerves mid-way between
margin and mid-nerve or sometimes closer to latter

14. Spikelets 2-8-flowered 15
Spikelets at least 10-flowered 16

15. Spikelets to 4-flowered, 1 x 1 mm; glume apices obtuse E. sp. A (Currawinya, M.Page AQ 717024)(QLD)
Spikelets 5-8-flowered, 3 x 3 mm; glume apices with reflexed mucros E. jerichoensis (QLD)

16. Spikelets c. 0.5 mm wide E. subtilis (NT)
Spikelets 0.75-1 mm wide E. lacunaria (NSW VIC NT SA WA QLD)

17. Annuals 18
Perennials 19

18. Lemma 1.75-2.5 mm long; spikelet 1-1.5 mm wide E. dielsii (NSW VIC NT SA WA QLD)
Lemma 1.5-1.6 mm long; spikelet 0.75-1 mm wide E. pergracilis (NSW VIC NT SA WA QLD)

19. Inflorescence compactly capitate, prominently exserted E. capitula (QLD)
Inflorescence not capitate or exserted 20

20. Inflorescence ±contracted 21
Inflorescence ±open and loose 23

21. Spikelets flexuous; peduncle and inflorescence axis hirsute to pilose E. hirticaulis (NT)
Spikelets rigid; peduncle and inflorescence
axis glabrous

22. Rachilla zig-zag; stamens 2 E. filicaulis (NT WA QLD)
Rachilla straight; stamens 3 E. lanicaulis (NSW NT WA QLD)

23. Spikelets inflated, ovate to oblong E. cassa (QLD)
Spikelets not inflated, lanceolate to linear 24

24. Culms 70-150 cm tall; panicle 20-46 cm long E. petraea (NT)
Culms to 40 cm tall; panicle to 15 cm long 25

25. Culm with a thick and woolly butt E. desertorum (NT WA QLD)
Culm not much thickened and only slightly
woolly at base
E. falcata (NSW VIC NT SA WA QLD)

26. Palea up to 1/2 lemma length E. speciosa (NSW NT SA WA QLD)
E. oldfieldii
Palea more than 1/2 lemma length 27

27. Perennials with rhizomes or conspicuously swollen butts 28
Annuals or slender perennials, scarcely thickened at base 35

28. Rhizome and/or butt woolly 29
Rhizome and/or butt glabrous or sparsely
pubescent (rarely woolly)

29. Spikelets woolly-hairy 30
Spikelets glabrous 31

30. Spikelets 3-5mm long E. lanipes (NSW SA WA)
E. clelandii
Spikelets 6-15mm long E. laniflora (NSW NT SA WA QLD)

31. Spikelets c. 1 mm wide E. desertorum (NT WA QLD)
Spikelets at least 2 mm wide E. eriopoda (NSW NT SA WA QLD)

32. Inflorescence an open panicle 33
Inflorescence a contracted panicle; inhabits arid habitats 34

33. Paleas deciduous; found in coastal
E. atrovirens (QLD)
Paleas not deciduous; inhabits inhabits
inland moundsprings
E. fenshamii (QLD)

34. Rhizome knotty; leaf-blades flat and recurved E. xerophila (NSW NT SA WA QLD)
Rhizome not knotty; leaf-blades inrolled and stiffly erect E. setifolia (NSW VIC NT SA WA QLD)

35. Spikelets to 1 mm wide 36
Spikelets wider than 1 mm 41

36. Spikelets 1 mm long, 3-5-flowered 37
Spikelets more than 2 mm long, 4-9-flowered 38

37. Slender perennial; inflorescence with ±congested branches E. kennedyae (NSW NT SA WA QLD)
Annual; inflorescence ±open E. exigua (NSW VIC NT WA QLD)

38. Spikelets more than 4 mm long E. leptocarpa (NSW VIC NT SA WA QLD)
Spikelets 2-3 mm long 39

39. Inflorescence ±spiciform E. confertiflora (NT SA WA QLD)
Inflorescence an open panicle 40

40. Palea margins distinctly ciliate

E. tenella (NT WA QLD)

E. amabilis

Palea margins not ciliate E. tenellula (NSW VIC NT SA WA QLD)
E. japonica auct.

41. Lateral nerve of lemma distinct 42
Lateral nerve of lemma indistinct 65

42. Lemma 2.5-3.5 mm long 43
Lemma less than 2.5 mm long 44

43. Pedicels less than 0.5 mm long; inhabits coastal dunes E. interrupta (NSW NT WA QLD)
Pedicels more than 0.5 mm long; inhabits sclerophyll woodlands and forests E. pubescens (NSW NT WA QLD)
E. stricta

44. Inflorescence branches with pulvini, glandular spots or rings E. jacobsiana(QLD)
Branches of inflorescence without glands 45

45. Inflorescence comprising more than half height of plant E. cumingii (NT WA QLD)
E. bleeseri, E. distans
Inflorescence comprising less than half height of plant 46

46. Spikelet on pedicels 0.1-0.5 mm long 47
Spikelet on pedicels more than 0.5 mm long 54

47. Spikelets arranged in an open inflorescence 48
Spikelets bunched in clusters 49

48. Spikelets ± 2 mm wide E. sterilis (NSW NT QLD)
Spikelets up to 1.5 mm wide E. stenostachya (NT QLD)

49. Rachilla disarticulating between florets 50
Rachilla not disarticulating between florets 53

50. Palea prominently ciliate E. basedowii (NSW NT SA WA QLD)
Palea glabrous or minutely ciliate 51

51. Spikelets 1.5-2 mm wide, 6-14-flowered E. elongata (NSW VIC NT SA WA QLD)
E. contigua, E. diandra
Spikelets 2.2-3 mm wide, 16-36-flowered 52

52. Mature spikelet at least 12 mm long E. concinna (NT QLD)
E. bella
Mature spikelet less than 12 mm long E. sororia (NSW NT QLD)

53. Spikelet ±2 mm wide E. schultzii (WA NT QLD)
Spikelet ±3 mm wide E. fallax (WA NT QLD)

54. Spikelets ±appressed to primary branches E. spartinoides (NSW WA NT QLD)
Spikelets not appressed to primary branches 55

55. Inflorescence branches ciliate in their axils *E. tef (NSW VIC SA)
Inflorescence branches glabrous in their axils 56

56. Palea deciduous with lemmas 57
Palea not deciduous with lemmas 59

57. Mature spikelet more than 3 mm wide *E. paniciformis (QLD)
Mature spikelets 2-3 mm wide 58

58. Annual; leaf-blades not curling up at maturity E. unioloides (QLD)
Perennial; leaf-blades curling up at maturity E. ecarinata (NT)

59. Spikelets 0.5-1.5 mm wide 60
Spikelets more than 1.5 mm wide 62

60. Spikelets ±bunched in clusters, with up to 30 florets E. stagnalis (NT QLD)
Spikelets openly arranged, with up to 15 florets 61

61. Perennial; spikelets on very long pedicels E. potamophila (NT WA)
Annual; spikelets not on very long pedicels *E. mexicana (NSW VIC SA WA
E. neomexicana, E. virescens



Inflorescence to 4 cm long E. subsecunda (QLD)
Inflorescence more than 10 cm long 63
Basal shaeaths strongly compressed, smooth and shiny; lemma nerves prominent and with small glands *E. plana (NSW)
Basal sheaths not compressed and shiny; lemma nerves eglandular 64

64. Leaf-blades to 6 mm wide, curling up at maturity E. rigidiuscula (NT WA QLD)
Leaf-blades much narrower, not curling up at maturity E. brownii (NSW VIC TAS SA WA QLD)
E. benthamii, E. brownii var.
patens, E. philippica, E. rara

65. Seed coat deep red, ridged, globose
E. trachycarpa (NSW VIC QLD)
Seed coat reddish-pink to whitish,  finely striate, elliptic

66. Robust and cane-like with culms much branched E. australasica (NSW VIC NT SA WA QLD)
Not robust and cane-like; culms not or sparsely branched 67

67. Inflorescence ±weeping 68
Inflorescence erect 69

68. Lower inflorescence branches whorled E. parviflora (NSW VIC NT SA WA QLD)
Lower inflorescence branches not whorled *E. bahiensis (QLD)

69. Inflorescence contracted or spikelets ±contracted along inflorescence branches 70
Inflorescence a loose open panicle 74

70. Inflorescence ±contracted along branches 71
Whole inflorescence ±contracted 73

71. Lemma to 1mm long; rachilla internode zig-zag E. uvida (NT QLD)
Lemma at least 1.5 mm long; rachilla internode straight 72

72. Spikelets to 4 mm long with up to 12 fertile florets E. microcarpa (NSW QLD)
Spikelets at least 5 mm long with at least 22 fertile florets E. triquetra (NSW QLD)

73. Lower glume 1/2 upper glume length E. megalosperma (NSW QLD)
Glumes subequal E. infecunda (VIC NT SA)



Inflorescence branches ciliate in their axils  75
Inflorescence branches not ciliate in their axils 76

Basal leaf-sheaths compressed; upper glume much shorter than adjacent lemma; leaf blades flat *E. tenuifolia (NSW TAS NT
Basal leaf-sheaths not compressed; upper glume slightly shorter than adjacent lemma; leaf blades involute
 *E. lugens (NSW QLD)
76. Basal sheaths densely hairy for some way from the base; spikelets olive-grey *E. curvula (NSW VIC TAS NT SA WA
Basal sheaths glabrous; spikelets yellow to dark green E. longipedicellata (QLD)

Key to Eragrostis derived from Lazarides 1997; Palmer et al 2005

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith