1. Culms rigid and cane-like; lemmas to 4 mm long 2
Culms not rigid and cane-like; lemmas more than 4 mm long 3

2. Lemma grabrous A. ramosissima (NSW QLD)
Stipa ramosissima
Lemma hairy A. verticillata (NSW QLD)
Stipa verticillata

3. Inflorescence branches plumose with fine hairs 4
Inflorescence branches glabrous, scabrous or pubescent 5

4. Culms pubescent; panicle branch hairs c. 0.5 mm long A. tuckeri (NSW VIC SA WA)
Stipa tuckeri
Culms glabrous; panicle branch hairs 1.5-2 mm long A. elegantissima (NSW VIC SA WA)
Stipa elegantissima

5. Inflorescence reduced to 1-3 spikelets;

leaf blades rudimentary (c. 1 mm long)
A. muelleri (VIC SA)
Stipa muelleri
Inflorescence with more than 8 spikelets;

leaf blades longer than 20 mm

6. Lemma with acute, hairy lobes 1.5-3 mm long 7
Lemma with lobes absent or to 0.8 mm long 10

7. Ligule 0.1-1 mm long; mature lemma hairs fulvous A. petraea (SA)
Stipa petraea
Ligule 2.5-10 mm long; mature lemma hairs white to yellow 8

8. Lower glume 10-12mm long; floret 6.5-8 mm long; awn 3-6 mm long A. juncifolia (WA)
Stipa juncifolia
Lower glume more than 12 mm long; floret more than 8 mm long 9

9. Awn 2-4 cm long A. stipoides (NSW VIC TAS SA)
Stipa stipoides, Stipa teretifolia
Awn 5-8 cm long A. geoffreyi (WA)

10. Awn falcate, bristle curved 11
Awn bigeniculate or straight, bristle straight 22

11. Inflorescence to 14 cm long, spike-like A. pycnostachya (WA)
Stipa pycnostachya
Inflorescence to 55 cm long, not spike-like 12

12. Awn hairs 0.25-1.5 mm long 13
Awn hairs to 0.2 mm long, if present 18

13. Lower glume 8-14 mm long; upper glume 6-12.5 mm long; floret 4-6.5 mm long 14
Lower glume 14-20 mm long; upper glume 11.5-18 mm long; floret 7-8 mm long 17

14. Leaf blade 2-6 mm wide, flat or inrolled 15
Leaf blade 0.3-0.6 mm diameter, inrolled 16

15. Leaves pungent; panicle contracted A. pilata (VIC SA)
Stipa pilata
Leaves acute; panicle expanded A. drummondii (NSW VIC SA WA)
Stipa drummondii

16. Awn column to 10 mm long; glumes unequal A. trichophylla (NSW VIC NT SA WA)
Stipa trichophylla
Awn column 11-14 mm long; glumes subequal A. variabilis (SA WA)
Stipa variabilis

17. Auricles glabrous or shortly hairy A. blakei (QLD)
Stipa blakei
Auricles hirsute with long white hairs A. tenuifolia (QLD)
Stipa eriopus, S. leptophylla, S.tenuifolia

18. Leaves very fine 19
Leaves coarse 21

19. Leaf blades and sheaths pilose with spreading hairs A. trichophylla (NSW VIC NT SA WA)
Stipa trichophylla
Leaf blades and sheaths glabrous or with short hairs 20

20. Inflorescence narrow; ligules 0.6-1 mm long A. scabra subsp. scabra (NSW VIC TAS NT SA WA QLD)
Stipa scabra subsp. scabra
Inflorescence spreading; ligules 0.3-0.6 mm long A. scabra subsp. falcata (NSW VIC TAS NT SA WA QLD)
Stipa falcata, Stipa scabra subsp. falcata

21. Inflorescence contracted, usually dense A. nitida (NSW VIC NT SA WA QLD)
Stipa nitida
Inflorescence spreading, usually sparse A. nodosa (NSW VIC TAS SA QLD)
Stipa effusa, Stipa nodosa

22. Lemma with an apical coma of hairs 23
Lemma without a coma of hairs 48

23. Lemma glabrous or almost so with shining surface 24
Lemma hairy with granular surface 26

24. Lower glume 19-26 mm long A. lanata (SA WA)
Stipa lanata
Lower glume to 18 mm long 25

25. Lower glume 14-18 mm long; awn 8-12.5 cm long A. vickeryana (SA WA)
Stipa vickeryana
Lower glume 9-11 mm long; awn 5-7 cm long A. nullanulla (NSW VIC SA)
Stipa nullanulla

26. Glumes very broad, inflated around floret; callus short and strongly hooked 27
Glumes narrow, close around floret; callus fine and straight 34

27. Ligule to 2 mm long; palea convex on upper surface or slightly depressed 28
Ligule 2-8 mm long; palea with groove on upper surface 33

28. Coma 2-5 mm long; lower leaves hairy A. blackii (NSW VIC TAS SA WA)
Stipa clelandii, S. blackii
Coma to 2 mm long; lower leaves glabrous or scabrous 29

29. Column with hairs 0.5-1.5 mm long; awn 30-40 mm long A. dongicola (WA)
Stipa dongicola
Column scabrous or with hairs less than 0.5 mm long 30

30. Column hairs 0.25-0.5 mm long A. curticoma (VIC SA)
Stipa curticoma
Column hairs to 0.2 mm long 31

31. Mature floret fusiform; callus very short

in relation to floret length; ligule 0.8-1.5 mm long
A. aristiglumis (NSW VIC QLD)
Stipa. fusiformis, S.aristiglumis
Mature floret oblong-cylindrical; callus

long in relation to floret length; ligule 0.3-0.5 mm long

32. Floret 6-9.5 mm long; coma 1.4-2 mm long A. bigeniculata (NSW VIC TAS)
Stipa bigeniculata
Floret 4.5-6 mm long; coma 0.8-1.3 mm long A. gibbosa (NSW VIC SA)
Stipa gibbosa

33. Floret 3-4.5 mm long; awn 12-18 mm long A. feresetacea (NSW VIC TAS)
Stipa feresetacea
Floret 5.5-7 mm long; awn 25-40 mm long A. setacea (NSW VIC SA QLD)
Stipa brachystephana, S.setacea

34. Coma to 1.5 mm long 35
Coma 2-3.5 mm long 45

35. Leaf blades pungent; awn 90-110 mm long A. echinata (NSW VIC TAS)
Stipa echinata
Leaf blades not pungent; awn 23-90(-110) mm long 36

36. Awn plumose with hairs 0.5-1 mm long A. plumigera (SA WA)
Stipa plumigera
Awn scabrous or with hairs to 0.3 mm long 37

37. Hairs at lemma apex shorter than those at base 38
Hairs evenly developed throughout lemma 39

38. Lower glume 8-12 mm long; column with hairs 0.05-0.1 mm long A. puberula (NSW VIC SA WA)
Stipa arachnopus, S.puberula
Lower glume 15-25 mm long; column with hairs 0.2-0.4 mm long A. eremophila (NSW VIC SA WA)
Stipa eremophila

39. Foliage velvety A. velutina (SA WA)
Stipa velutina
Foliage pubescent or hirsute 40

40. Inflorescecence not exserted above basal leaves A. centralis (SA WA)
Stipa centralis
Inflorescecence exserted well above basal leaves 41

41. Awn column villous; leaf sheaths hirsute or

pubescent; inflorescence 20-35 cm long
A. stuposa (SA WA)
Stipa stuposa

Awn column scabrous, pubescent or villous; if villous then leaf sheathsscabrous or pubescent and inflorescence to 12 cm long


42. Culms slender, to 1 mm wide near base 43
Culms sturdy, 1.5-4 mm wide near base 44

43. Lower glume 8-10 mm long A. exilis (VIC SA WA)
Stipa exilis
Lower glume 12-17 mm long A. mundula (VIC SA)
Stipa mundula

44. Callus 0.5-1.2 mm long; awn 25-40 mm long A. multispiculis (SA)
Stipa multispiculis
Callus 1.6-3 mm long; awn 35-65 mm long A. flavescens (NSW VIC TAS SA WA)
Stipa aphanoneura, S. compacta, S.elatior, S. hirsuta, S. tenuiglumis, S. flavescens

45. Column hairs 0.5-1 mm long A. stuposa (SA WA)
Stipa stuposa
Column scabrous or with hairs to 0.3 mm long 46

46. Column 7-12 mm long; coma spreading A. crinita (WA)
Stipa crinita
Column 15-25 mm long; coma appressed 47

47. Lower glume 11-15 mm long; lemma 5.5-6.5 mm long A. wakoolica (NSW)
Stipa wakoolica
Lower glume 16-20 mm long; lemma 7-8.2 mm long A. metatoris (NSW SA)
Stipa metatoris

48. Column scabrous or with hairs to 0.3 mm long 49
Column with hairs more than 0.3 mm long 64

49. Ligule less than 3 mm long 50
Ligule more than 3 mm long 62

50. Lemma glabrous in some parts 51
Lemma hairy all over 58

51. Lemma scabrous except on nerves A. oligostachya (VIC SA)
Stipa oligostachya
Lemma with hairs not restricted to nerves 52

52. Spikelets 8-12 per panicle; column 55-70 mm long A. nivicola (NSW VIC)
Stipa nivicola
Spikelets more than 12 per panicle; column less than 55 mm long 53

53. Glumes acuminate or dentata; leaves deciduous before flowering A. aphylla (TAS)
Stipa aphylla
Glumes truncate, acute or obtuse; leaves not deciduous; leaves deciduous 54

54. Lower glume to 15 mm long 55 (A. rudis)
Lower glume at least 17 mm long 57

55. Awn 60-90mm long with column 32-45 mm long A. rudis subsp. australis (NSW VIC TAS)
Stipa rudis subsp. australis
Awn less than 60mm long with column to 25 mm long 56

56. Column 20-25 mm long; callus 1.5-2.5 mm long A. rudis subsp. rudis (NSW VIC QLD)
Stipa nervosa var. neutralis, S. rudis subsp. rudis
Column less than 20 mm long; callus 0.8-1.7 mm long A. rudis subsp. nervosa (NSW VIC TAS)
Stipa nervosa var. nervosa, S. rudis subsp. nervosa

57. Lemma tuberculate at apex; palea 2/3 lemma length A. pubescens (NSW VIC QLD)
Stipa pubescens
Lemma granular; palea equal in length to lemma A. pubinodis (NSW VIC TAS SA)
Stipa pubinodis

58. Inflorescence not exserted above basal leaves, with less than 30 spikelets A. centralis (NT)
Stipa centralis
Inflorescence well exserted above basal leaves, with more than 30 spikelets 59

59. Callus sharp; palea more than 2/3 lemma length A. breviglumis (VIC SA)
Stipa breviglumis
Callus blunt; palea c. 2/3 lemma length 60

60. Lower glume 4-5.5 mm long; floret 3-4 mm long A. nullarborensis (WA)
Stipa nullarborensis
Lower glume 6-15 mm long; floret 4.5-6.5 mm long 61

61. Column scabrous; bristle flattened A. platychaeta (NSW VIC SA WA)
Stipa platychaeta
Column pubescent; bristle round-triangular A. acrociliata (NSW VIS SA WA)
Stipa acrociliata

62. Lemma to 6 mm long; bristle flattened A. platychaeta (NSW VIC SA WA)
Stipa platychaeta
Lemma at least 6.5 mm long; bristle

terete-triangular in cross section

63. Leaf sheaths hairy A. macalpinei (VIC SA WA)
Stipa lanceolata, S.macalpinei
Leaf sheaths glabrous or minutely

A. compressa (WA)
Stipa compressa

64. Lemma glabrous except on nerves A. oligostachya (VIC SA)
Stipa oligostachya
Lemma hairy overall 65

65. Panicle not exserted above basal leaves,

with less than 30 spikelets
A. centralis (NT)
Stipa centralis
Panicle well exserted above basal leaves,

with more than 30 spikelets

66. Column hairs 1-4 mm long, mainly on ribs and

spiralling with column
Column hairs 0.3-1 mm long, evenly

distributed around column

67. Upper glume 9-10 mm long; floret 3.5-5 mm long A. aquarii (NT)
Stipa aquarii
Upper glume 10-15 mm long; floret 5-7 mm long A. hemipogon (VIC SA WA)
Stipa indeprensa, S. nobilis, S.plagiopogon, S. hemipogon
Upper glume 15-20mm long; floret 7.5-8.5mm long A. mollis (NSW VIC TAS SA WA)
Stipa mollis

68. Awn 70-90 mm long; leaves scabrous or glabrous A. semibarbata (NSW VIC TAS SA WA)
Stipa semibarbata, S. semibarbata var. gracilis
Awn less than 60 mm long; leaves hairy 69

69. Floret 8-9mm long; awn 50-70 mm long A. campylachne (WA)
Stipa campylachne
Floret 5.5-7 mm long; awn 35-45 mm long A. densiflora (NSW VIC SA QLD)
Stipa congesta, S. densiflora

Key to Austrostipa derived from Vickery, Jacobs and Everett 1986 as Stipa,
Jacobs and Everett 1996

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith