1. Robust perennials growing on coastal foredunes; inflorescences rarely exserted above leaves 2
  Annuals or perennials not on coastal foredunes; inflorescenses usually exserted above leaves 3
2. Lemmas and glumes 7-11 mm long; lemmas 5-7-nerved

P. billardierei (NSW VIC TAS SA WA)

Austrofestuca littoralis, Festuca littoralis

  Lemmas and glumes 12-17 mm long; lemmas 9-nerved

P. pubinervis (WA)

Austrofestuca pubinervis, Festuca pubinervis

3. Annuals 4
Perennials 6

4. Inflorescence narrow with spikelets appressed to branches P. fax (NSW VIC SA WA)
P. lepida, Neuropoa fax
Inflorescence ±open 5

5. Lemmas 2.5-4 mm long *P. annua (NSW VIC TAS NT SA WA QLD)
Lemmas 2-2.5 mm long *P. infirma (NSW VIC TAS SA)

6. Base of plant bulbous, nodular or with thickened internodes 7
Base of plant not as above 9

7. Base of plant bulbous *P. bulbosa (NSW VIC TAS SA WA)
Base of plant nodular or with thickened internodes 8

8. Spikelets turgid; sheaths glabrous P. drummondiana (VIC SA WA)
Spikelets compressed; sheaths scabrous to pubescent P. crassicaudex (SA)

9. Culm internodes strongly compressed 10
Culm internodes terete of slightly compressed 11

10. Sheaths keeled and fused around culm P. homomalla (WA)
Sheaths open, not fused around culm *P. compressa (NSW TAS)

11. Blades smooth or scabrous on lower surface (sometimes loosely hispid in P. hookeri) 12
Blades pubescent or hirsute on lower surface 59

12. Ligule usually 2 mm long or more (rarely less), thinly membranous and ±smooth 13
Ligule 0.1-2 mm long, firmly membranous, usually ±puberulous or scabrous on back and/or ciliate at apex, or reduced to a line of hairs 17

13. Rhizomatous; ligule obtuse or truncate 14
Not rhizomatous; ligule acute to acuminate 16

14. Plants naturalised in rich soils; spikelets 2.5-6 mm long *P. pratensis (NSW VIC TAS SA WA)
Plants of wet habitats; spikelets 5-10 mm long 15

15. Spikelets 8-10 mm long; glumes shorter than adjacent lemma; inhabits non-saline alluvial sites P. fordeana (NSW VIC SA QLD)
Spikelets 5-8 mm long; glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma; inhabits saline sites P. sallacustris (VIC)

16. Stoloniferous; ligule 4-10mm long *P. trivialis (NSW VIC TAS)
Tufted; ligule 4-10mm long P. hookeri (VIC TAS)

17. Blades flat or folded and 2-sided 18
Blades rolled or closely folded and ±cylindrical 35

18. Leaves and shoots from aerial nodes, or plants stoloniferous 19
Leaves and shoots mostly basal; plants tufted or rhizomatous 22

19. Lemma glabrous or with sparse hairs on keels and nerves P. umbricola (SA)
Lemma usually pubescent between nerves on lower back 20



Plants ±robust and erect; blades firm P. affinis (NSW)
Plants flaccid, often trailing; blades soft 21
Leaf sheath red; ligule decurrent and encircling the culm; spikelets glabrous or almost so
P. amplexicaulis (VIC)
Leaf sheath and ligule not as above; spikelets shortly pubescent P. tenera (NSW VIC TAS SA)
22. Rhizomatous 23
Tufted 28

23. Lower leaf sheaths ±purplish; lemmas ±pubescent on internerves 24
Lower leaf sheaths not purplish; lemmas glabrous on internerves 27

24. Lemmas 1.7-3 mm long 25
Lemmas 2.75-5 mm long 26

25. Leaves glabrous or nearly so P. clelandii (VIC TAS SA)
Leaves ±velutinous P. hothamensis var. parviflora (VIC)

26. Blades smooth to scabrous P. ensiformis (NSW VIC)
Blades with fine hairs P. hothamensis var. hothamensis (VIC)

27. Blades ±rigid; spikelets strongly compressed P. cheelii (NSW QLD)
Blades herbaceous; spikelets compressed but ±turgid *P. pratensis (NSW VIC TAS SA WA QLD)

28. Inflorescence branches short and with spikelets almost to their bases P. poiformis var. poiformis (NSW VIC TAS SA WA)
Inflorescence branches without spikelets in lower parts 29

29. Paleas not or rarely ciliolate below 30
Paleas finely ciliolate below 32

30. Leaves ±smooth P. porphyroclados (WA)
P. serpentum
Leaves generally scabrous 31

31. Peduncles compressed below inflorescence; blades 3-8 mm wide P. helmsii (NSW VIC)
Peduncles ±terete below inflorescence; blades 1-3.5 mm wide P. labillardieri var. labillardieri (NSW VIC TAS SA QLD)

32. Sheaths ±purplish at base P. clelandii (VIC TAS SA)
Sheaths not or rarely purplish at base 33

33. Sheaths ±pubescent P. crassicaudex (SA)
Sheaths scabrous or smooth 34

34. Lemma hairy between nerves and on keel to midway P. lowanensis (VIC)
Lemma glabrous between nerves and on keel from slightly above base P. labillardieri var. labillardieri (NSW VIC TAS SA QLD)

35. Blades ±rigid and smooth 36
Blades rigid and scabrous or not rigid 42



Rhizomatous P. halmaturina (VIC TAS SA)
Rhizomes not or rarely developed  37
Lemmas more or less glabrous; culms stiffly erect and branching P. orthoclada (VIC)
Lemmas hairy to some degree; culms not as above 38
38. Lemmas ±pubescent on lower part of back P. fawcettiae (NSW VIC TAS)
Lemmas hairy mainly on keels and lateral nerves or without hairs 39

39. Inflorescence branches with spikelets almost to their bases 40
Inflorescence branches without spikelets in
their lower parts

40. Culm not branching from lower nodes;
sheaths and internodes green
P. poiformis var. poiformis (NSW VIC TAS SA WA)
P. australis, P. laevis, P. plebeia
Culm branching from lower nodes; sheaths and internodes often purple P. poiformis var. ramifer (VIC TAS)

41. Lemmas 2.5-3.5 mm long P. gunnii (TAS)
Lemmas ±4.5 mm long P. costiniana (NSW VIC TAS)

42. Blades rigid 43
Bldes not or scarcely rigid 45

43. Lower sheaths not purplish P. gunnii (TAS)
Lower sheaths usually purplish 44

44. Paleas ciliolate P. phillipsiana (NSW VIC)
Paleas not ciliolate P. labillardieri var. acris (TAS)

45. Culms with aerial shoots or rhizomes or stoloniferous and trailing 46
Culms tufted, without aerial shoots, rhizomes or stolons 48

46. Plants with rhizomes P. jugicola (TAS)
Plants without rhizomes 47

47. Ligule 0.8-2.6 mm long; basal leaf sheaths
strongly reddish; margins connate for their entire length
P. ligulata (VIC)
Ligule 0.3-0.4 mm long; basal leaf sheaths
not reddish; margins connate in lower 2/3 to for their entire length (but
usually splitting)
P. tenera (NSW VIC TAS SA)

48. Lemma glabrous P. clivicola (NSW VIC)
Lemma hairy to some degree 49

49. Internerves glabrous 50
Internerves hairy 54

50. Tussocks generally large and coarse 53
Tussocks small and fine 52

51. Leaves smooth P. porphyroclados (WA)
Leaves scabrous P. labillardieri var. labillardieri (NSW VIC TAS SA QLD)

52. Glumes narrow P. meionectes (NSW VIC SA)
P. exilis
Glumes rather broad to broad 51

53. Lemma linear-lanceolate to lanceolate P. clivicola (NSW VIC)
Lemma oblong P. gunnii (TAS)

54. Blades smooth 55
Blades scabrous 56

55. Blades soft, bright green P. hiemata (NSW VIC TAS)
Blades ±rigid, bluish P. fawcettiae (NSW VIC TAS)

56. Scabrous surface very dense P. rodwayi (VIC TAS SA)
Scabrous surface sparse 57

57. Sheaths pubescent P. crassicaudex (SA)
Sheaths smooth or scabrous 58

58. Leaves green to greyish-green P. sieberiana var. sieberiana (NSW VIC TAS QLD)
Leaves bluish P. sieberiana var. cyanophylla (NSW)

59. Blades sparsely hairy P. sieberiana var. hirtella (NSW VIC QLD)
Blades densely hairy 60

60. Blades with hairs of two lengths, or else
distinctly scabrous between hairs
P. induta (NSW)
Blades with hairs ±equal in length, or if
in two lengths longer hairs soft and fine

61. Blades tightly inrolled 62
Blades flat, folded or loosely

62. Lemmas 3-4 mm long P. petrophila (NSW VIC)
Lemmas 2.5-3.5 mm long P. rodwayi (VIC TAS SA)

63. Lower sheaths purplish; lemma glabrous
between nerves
P. mollis (TAS)
Lower sheaths pallid; lemma pubescent
between nerves

65. Lower internodes not swollen P. morrisii (VIC SA)
Lower internodes ±swollen P. crassicaudex (SA)

Key to Poa derived from Vickery 1970; Morris 1990; Walsh 1991, 1992

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith