1. Upper glume 9-13-nerved; fertile floret curved in profile 2
Upper glume 5-7(-9) nerved; fertile floret
not curved in profile

2. Spikelets 2-2.7 mm wide

P. globoideum (NSW QLD)

Setaria globoidea

Spikelets 1.4-1.5 mm wide

P. retiglume (NT WA QLD)

Setaria retiglumis

Spikelets 1-1.1 mm wide

P. reflexum (NT SA QLD WA)

Setaria reflexa



Racemes reduced to 1-2 (-4) spikelets 4
Racemes not reduced 5

Spikelets 2.7-3.5 mm long

P. rarum (NSW NT QLD WA)

Setaria rara

Spikelets 2.1-2.5 mm long P. johnsonii (QLD)
5. Spikelets irregularly arranged on raceme axes 6
Spikelets regularly arranged on raceme axes 14

6. Annuals with compressible culms 7
Perennials with wiry or setaceous culms 8

7. Spikelets 2-2.4 mm long; culms smooth

P. clementii (NSW NT SA WA QLD)

Setaria clementii

Spikelets 2.75-3.1 mm long; culms ±scabrous

P. basicladum (NT SA WA QLD)

Setaria basiclada

8. Spikelets up to 1 mm wide P. criniforme (NSW QLD)
P. gracile var. debile, Setaria criniformis
Spikelets more than 1 mm wide 9

9. Lower lemma deeply grooved longitudinally P. tabulatum (WA)
Lower lemma without a groove 10

10. Culms arising from robust rhizomes; spikelets 4.1-4.8 mm long P. grandispiculatum (QLD)
Culms arising from contracted rootstocks; spikelets 2.4-3.6 mm long 11



Upper lemma surface
finely rugulose
Upper lemma surface coarsely rugose



Culms wiry and
branched, not bushy, 50-115 cm tall; ligule c. 0.3
mm long, leaf blades flat or sometimes rigid to

P. spartellum (QLD)

Setaria spartellum

Culms bushy, 30-90 cm tall; ligule c. 1mm long;
leaf involute and becoming fililiform
P. gracile (NSW VIC NT SA WA QLD)

13. Upper lemma surface moderately coarsely rugose;
spikelets 2.4-3.6 mm long
P. constrictum (NSW VIC NT SA WA QLD)
P. gracile var. rugosum, Setaria constricta
Upper lemma very
coarsely rugose (the wrinkles visible through the upper glume); spikelets 1.8-2.3 mm
 P. breviflorum (NSW QLD)

14. Spikelets at least 2.5 mm long 15
Spikelets less than 2.5 mm long 19

15. Most inflorescence branches, particularly those
toward the apex of the inflorescence, often as long as or longer than
adjacent internodes of axis
P. jubiflorum (NSW VIC NT SA WA QLD)
Most  inflorescence branches shorter than adjacent
internodes of  axis

16 Leaf sheaths ciliate on at least one margin in upper part 17
Leaf sheaths glabrous on margins 18

17. Rigid wiry perennial; leaf blades firmly rigid P. gausum (NSW QLD)
Lax decumbent perennial; leaf blades soft P. aversum (NSW QLD)

18. Culms thick and spongy; racemes 10-16 P. udum (NT QLD)
Culms slender and not spongy; racemes 3-8 P. flavidum (QLD)

19. Leaf sheaths and blades hirsute P. albovillosum (NSW QLD)
P. radiatum var. hirsutum
Leaf sheaths and blades glabrous 20



Leaf blades narrow and rolled (when dry)
P. caespitosum (NSW QLD)
Leaf blades remaining flat, up to 4 mm wide


Leaf blades scabrous; raceme rachis relatively broad P. scabrifolium (QLD)
Leaf blades not scabrous; raceme rachis relatively narrow

P. distans (NSW NT WA QLD)

P. radiatum, Setaria distans, P. disjunctum 

Key to Paspalidium derived from Vickery 1975; Webster 1987

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith