Upper lemma obtusely rounded at apex and with distinct mucro; lower glume abaxial to spikelet bearing axis 2
Upper lemma obtuse to acute, usually muticous; lower glume adaxial to spikelet bearing axis 5


Lower glume c. 1/3 spikelet length 3
Lower glume at least 1/2 spikelet length 4
3. Spikelets glabrous *U. panicoides var. panicoides (NSW SA WA QLD)
Spikelets pubescent *U. panicoides var  pubescens (QLD)
4. Lower glume 5-7-nerved *U. oligotricha (QLD)
U. bulbodes
Lower glume 3-nerved, rarely sub-5-nerved *U. mosambicensis (NSW NT WA QLD)
U. rhodesiensis, U. pullulans
5. Inflorescence ± open or with spikelets in several untidy rows; lower racemes sometimes branching 6
Inflorescence strictly regular and racemose with spikelets in two regular rows; lower racemes never branching 11
6. Plant with robust ascending culms 2-6 m tall, with stolons *U. mutica (NSW NT WA QLD)
Brachiaria mutica
Plant with slender culms 1 m tall, without stolons 7
7. Spikelets c. 6 mm long U. foliosa (NSW QLD)
Brachiaria foliosa
Spikelets less than 6 mm long 8
8. Spikelets c. 2 mm long U. reptans (NT WA QLD)
Brachiaria reptans
Spikelets 3-4 mm long 9
9. Glumes and lower lemma with cross veins *U. fusca (NSW QLD)
Brachiaria fasciculata var. reticulata
Glumes and lower lemma without cross veins 10
10. Spikelets hairy, 3.5-4.6 mm long; rachilla pronounced between glumes U. pubigera (NT WA QLD)
Brachiaria ramosa var. grandiflora, Brachiaria pubigera
Spikelets glabrous, 2.8-3.5 mm long; rachilla not pronounced between glumes U. praetervisa (NSW NT SA WA QLD)
Brachiaria windersii, Brachiaria reptans
11. Spikelets up to 3 mm long 12
Spikelets more than 3 mm long 14
12. Ligule a fringed membrane U. distachya (NT QLD)
Ligule a fringe of hairs 13
13. Spikelets glabrous, not turgid U. kurzii (WA QLD)
Brachiaria kurzii
Spikelets sparsely hairy, ± turgid U. ramosa (NT WA QLD)
14. Strong perennials 15
Annuals or weak perennials 17
15. Lower glume 3/4 to as long as spikelet *U. humidicola (QLD)
Lower glume 1/3-1/2 as long as spikelet 16
16. Rachis c. 2 mm wide, flattened; spikelets ± hairy *U. decumbens (NT WA QLD)
Brachiaria decumbens
Rachis c. 0.75 mm wide, flattened to convex; spikelets glabrous *U. brizantha (QLD)
Brachiaria brizantha
17. Lower glume 1/8-1/6 spikelet length 18
Lower glume 1/3-1/2 spikelet length 21
18. Spikelets 3-4 mm long 19
Spikelets 4-5 mm long 20
19. Spikelets glabrous U. occidentalis var. occidentalis (WA)
Brachiaria gilesii subsp. occidentalis
Spikelets hairy U. occidentalis var. ciliata (WA)
20. Spikelets hairy U. gilesii  var. gilesii (NSW NT SA QLD)
Brachiaria gilesii subsp. gilesii
Spikelets glabrous

U. gilesii var. notochthona (NSW NT SA QLD)

Brachiaria notochthona

21. Spikelets hairy 22
Spikelets glabrous 29
22. Spikelets with a subapical fringe of silky hairs 23
Spikelets evenly hairy or if with longer apical hairs these are not arranged in a fringe 25
23. Hairs of subapical fringe ± the same length; lower lemma not drawn out to an apical point U. argentea (NT)
Brachiaria argentea
Hairs of apical fringe of varying lengths; lower lemma drawn out to an apical point 24
24. Leaf blades not velutinous U. holosericea subsp. holosericea (NT WA QLD)
Brachiaria holosericea subsp. holosericea
Leaf blades velutinous U. holosericea subsp. velutina (NT WA QLD)
Brachiaria holosericea subsp. velutina
25. Hairs increasing in length towards spikelet apex U. piligera (NSW NT SA WA QLD)
Brachiaria. piligera var. intercedens, ​Brachiaria piligera
Hairs evenly distributed on spikelet 26
26. Spikelets more than 3.6 mm long 27
Spikelets less than 3.5 mm long 28
27. Spikelets 3.6-4.5 mm long; lower floret sterile U. atrisola (NT QLD)
Spikelets 4.7-6 mm long; lower floret male *U. texana (NSW QLD)
Brachiaria texana
28. Pedicels without long white bristly hairs U. whiteana (QLD)
Brachiaria whiteana
Pedicels with long whitebristly hairs *U. advena (NSW QLD)
Brachiaria advena
29. Spikelets reddish; leaf margins serrate U. polyphylla (NT QLD)
Brachiaria polyphylla
Spikelets green to yellow *U. subquadripara (NSW NT SA WA QLD)
Brachiaria miliiformis, B. subquadripara

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith