Dactylis glomerata*

Dactylis glomerata* Linn. Sp. Pl. 71 (1753).

Classification. (GPWG 2001) : Subfamily Pooideae. Tribe Poeae.

Type of Basionym or Protologue Information: Habitat in Virginia, Canada, Lusitania. LT: Anon., (LINN-90.3). LT designated by Clayton, Fl. Trop. E. Africa Gramineae (1): 43 (1970).

Key references (books and floras): [1878] G.Bentham, Flora Australiensis 7 (640), [1952] C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1 Gramineae (104), [2002] D.Sharp & B.K.Simon, AusGrass, Grasses of Australia, [2002] J.Wheeler, N.Marchant & M.Lewington, Flora of the South West (409), [2006] J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia (121), [2008] S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Walley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales (194), [2009] A.Wilson (ed.). Flora of Australia, Vol 44A. Poaceae 2 (343).

Illustrations: [1952] C.A.Gardner, Flora of Western Australia 1 Gramineae (105, Pl. 30), [2006] J.Jessop, G.R.M.Dashorst, F.M.James, Grasses of South Australia  (122, Fig. 79), [1984] N.T.Burbidge. rev. S.W.L.Jacobs, Australian Grasses  (101), [2008] S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Whalley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South Wales, 4th edn (194), [2009]. A.Wilson (ed.), Flora of Australia 44A: Poaceae 2 (341, Fig. 45).

Habit. Perennial. Culms erect or geniculately ascending, 15–140 cm tall. Leaves cauline. Ligule an eciliate membrane, 4–17 mm long, abaxially hairy. Leaf-blades conduplicate, (4.5–)15–68 cm long, 2–14 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous.

Inflorescence. Inflorescence compound, a panicle. Panicle ovate, 2–30 cm long, gathered into fascicles.

Spikelets. Spikelets pedicelled. Fertile spikelets many flowered, with at least 2 fertile florets (2–5), comprising 2–5 fertile floret(s), with diminished florets at the apex, oblong or cuneate, laterally compressed, 5–9.4 mm long.

Glumes. Glumes dissimilar, thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate, membranous, keeled, 1-keeled, 1(–3) -nerved. Upper glume ovate, 3.2–7.2 mm long, membranous, keeled, 1-keeled, 1–3 -nerved.

Florets. Fertile lemma 4–7.2 mm long, keeled, 5 -nerved. Lemma apex awned, 1 -awned. Median (principal) awn 0.5–1.5 mm long overall.

Continental Distribution: Europe, Africa, Temperate Asia, Tropical Asia, Australasia, Pacific, North America, South America, and Antarctica.

Australian Distribution: Western Australia, South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, Norfolk I, Lord Howe.

Western Australia: Drummond, Menzies, Warren, Eyre. South Australia: Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South-eastern. Queensland: Moreton, Wide Bay. New South Wales: Central Coast, South Coast, Central Tablelands, Southern Tablelands, South-Western Slopes. Victoria: East Gippsland, Eastern Highlands, Gippsland Highlands, Gippsland Plain, Grampians, Lowan Mallee, Midlands, Murray Mallee, Otway Plain, Otway Range, Wilsons Promontory, Riverina, Snowfields, Volcanic Plain, Wannon, Wimmera. Tasmania: King Island, Furneaux Group, North West, North East, West Coast, Central Highlands, Midlands, Ben Lomond, East Coast, South West, Mt Field, Mt Wellington.

Notes. A very variable species including, at least in Europe, diploids and tetraploids, some of which have been given specific or subspecific rank. Australian material is apparently referable to subsp. glomerata.

Also on Lord Howe Is. Native to the Mediterranean region, now naturalized throughout the temperate regions of the world. Common weed along roadsides and disturbed areas, growing best on moist, fertile soils. Flowers Sept.-May.

AVH 2011



Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith