Themeda quadrivalvis* (L.) Kuntze. Rev.
Gen. Pl. 2: 794 (1891).
Classification. (GPWG 2001) : Subfamily
Replacement Name: Andropogon
quadrivalvis L., Syst. Veg. (ed. 13) 758 (1774).
Type of Basionym or
Protologue Information: LT: (LINN-1211.5). LT designated by Cope in
Cafferty et al., Taxon 49(2): 246 (2000).
(books and floras):  D.Sharp & B.K.Simon, AusGrass, Grasses of
Australia,  S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Walley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses
of New South Wales (384).
 S.W.L.Jacobs, R.D.B.Whalley & D.J.B.Wheeler, Grasses of New South
Wales, 4th edn (384).
Basal leaf sheaths present. Culms erect or geniculately ascending, 30–200 cm
tall, 4–6 mm diam., 5–7 -noded. Mid-culm nodes glabrous. Ligule an eciliate
membrane, 1–2.5 mm long. Leaf-blades conduplicate, 7–60 cm long, 1–6 mm wide.
Leaf-blade surface smooth or scaberulous, glabrous or indumented.
Inflorescence compound, of pedicelled spikelet clusters. Rhachis fragile at the
Spikelets sessile, 1 in the cluster. Companion spikelets pedicelled, 1 in the
cluster. Basal sterile spikelets well-developed, 4 in number. Companion
spikelets developed, comprising 2 subequal glumes without lemmas, 4–6 mm long.
Fertile spikelets 2-flowered, the lower floret barren (rarely male), the upper
fertile, comprising 1 basal sterile florets, comprising 1 fertile floret(s),
without rachilla extension, elliptic, terete, 4.5–5.5 mm long.
dissimilar, firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong, coriaceous, much
thinner above, without keels, 7–9 -nerved. Lower glume surface indumented.
Upper glume oblong, 3 -nerved. Florets. Basal sterile florets 1, barren,
without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret hyaline, 1 -nerved.
Fertile lemma without
keel, 1 -nerved. Lemma apex entire, awned, 1 -awned. Median (principal) awn
apical, 10–45 mm long overall, with a twisted column. Palea absent.
Distribution: Africa, Temperate Asia, Tropical Asia, Australasia, Pacific,
North America, and South America.
Distribution: Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland, New South
Gardner, Hall, Dampier. Northern Territory: Darwin & Gulf. Queensland:
Burnett, Cook, Leichhardt, Moreton, North Kennedy, Port Curtis, South Kennedy,
Wide Bay. New South Wales: North Coast.
India and Burma, now fairly widespread in areas to the east and west of the
Indian subcontinent. Naturalised in Australia mostly in subtropical and
tropical coastal Qld with a few records from N.T. and W.A. Flowers Feb.--Oct.